Chapter 2 Psychology study stuff

a number of antiepileptic medications work to increase this neurotransmitter in order to prevent seizures, tumors, and insomnia.
GABA

Why do psychologists sometimes study monkey’s brains?
the information and neural systems of humans and monkeys operate similarly and study of the monkey brain can shed light on human systems.

Much like a battery, ______ generate electricity from chemical events
neurons

most of the signals neurons receive are _____; others are opposite, or ______.
1) excitatory
2) Inhibitory

Botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is an ACh antagonist that:
Paralyzes underlying facial muscles

A scientist has been asked to give a brief lecture on neurons and action potential to a group of high school students. Which statement describes the chemistry-to-electricity process of the action potential?
It is similar to the way batteries generate electricity.

Small samples of brain tissue from humans are difficult to distinguish form brain tissue samples of:
Monkeys

Dendrites transmit messages _______ the cell body, and axons transmit messages _______ the cell body.
toward; away from

Depressed mood states are linked to ______ levels of serotonin and ______ levels of norepinephrine.
low; low

Natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called?
Endorphins

Multiple sclerosis is a disease that is MOST directly associated with the degeneration of:
The Myelin Sheath

Some people must avoid foods high in MSG, as oversupply of the neurotransmitter ______ can overstimulate the brain, inducing seizures or migraines.
Glutamate

Neuritransmitter it to ______ as neural receptor site is to _________.
key ; lock

the process of ______ occurs when the semding neuron normally reabsorbs neurotranismitter molecules.
Reuptake

Correct order of the structure of the motor neuron is
dendrites, the cell body, axon, terminal branches of the axon

Information processing in the brain involves neurons communicating with each other at their:
Synapses

Marlee has just been dignoased with multiple scelerosis (MS). As the disease progresses, communication to some of her muscels may slow down and she could lose some muscle control as a result of the degeneration of the:
Myelin Sheath

A commercial for a new medication states the medication can allievitae depression, “Since depression is a chemical imbalence, new Venlafaxine- extended realese can help with mood, sleep, arousal, and alertness by working on the two key neruitransmitters involved in depression.” The two transmitters are:
Serotonin and norepinephrine

Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concertation of serotonin molecules in the:
Synaptic gap

This bushy, branching, extenion of a neuron recives a messages and conducts impulses toward the cell body.
Dendrite Fibers

The all-or-none response of a neuron is similar to:
A light switch that only has two positions–on and off.

If speed were of the essence, which, information processing system would be BEST chosen to make simple secisions?
A computer

The ‘ decision ‘ as to whether a neuron fires or not can be described as most similar to:
Firing of guns

Axons are to _____ as dendrites are to _______.
Speaking ; hearing

These cells in the nervous system support, nourish, and protect neurons
Glial

The neurons that carry outgoing informatuion from the brain and spinal chord to the body’s tissues are the:
motor neurons

The largest number of neurons within the brain and spinal chord are responsible for the central nevous system’s complex communications and intervene between inputs and outputs. These are the:
interneurons

a medical equipment company is thinking of expanding by developing lie-detection machines, which measures presperation, cardiovascular, and respiration changes. On which system should their research focus?
the sympathetic nervous system

Which analogy might one use when trying ti=o describe the function of the somatic nervous system to a middle-school child?
it functions like a remote control that moves a robotic arm

In terms of heartbeat, digestion, and giandular functioning, the body is a fairly well-oiled machine that works even when asleep. This is possible because of the:
Autonomic nervous system

While listening to to operatic solos, musicians process the lyrics and the tunes in seperate brains areas. The MOST clearly illistrates the functioning of different:
Neural networks

The work groups that neurons cluster into are known as:
neural networks

If the top of the spinal chord is severed, a person would:
exhibit a knee-jerk reflex response without feeling the tap

The nervous system stimulates ejaculation in the male:
Sympathetic

One can think of Alzheimer’s disease as the deterioration and breakdown of the connections known as:
neural networks

The spinal cord is like an information highway that connects the ________ to the brain.
peripheral nervous system

This part of the peripheral nervous system controls the self-regulated action of the internal organs and glands
Autonomic

Although Naeem has no genital sensations, he is capable of an erection if his genitals are stimulated. Naeem’s experience is MOST indicative of a:
Severed spinal cord

Leiko is paralyzed below the waist following an accident. Though she does not respond to erotic images, she does experience an increase in vaginal luberication in response to genital simulation. Lieko has most clearly suffered damage to her:
Spinal chord

Given the proportional amounts of the different types of neurons, which type of neuron one be LEAST likely to worry about if one lost 100,000 of them?
Interneurons

Information from the peripheral nervous system is carried to the central nervous system by neural “cables” called:
Nerves

Whenever people turn the pages of a book, use their pens to take notes, or raise their hands, they know that this is possible because of their:
Somatic nervous system

Cherise is babysitting for her two-year-old nephew for the first time. While her back is turned, he touches his index finger to the pan she just took out of the oven. He pulls his finger away quickly, and a few seconds later begins to scream. Why is his screaming delayed in comparison to pulling away his finger?
The hand-withdrawal reflex involves only the spinal cord, so it takes time before the information about pain reaches the brain.

Which does the autonomic nervous system most directly control?
Bladder Contraction

In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ______ glucose (blood sugar) levels and _____ the pupils of the eyes.
raises; dilates

A medical equipment company is thinking of expanding by developing lie-detection machines, which measure perspiration, cardiovascular, and respiration changes. On which system should their research focus?
The sympathetic nervous system

Which analogy might one use when trying to describe the function of the somatic nervous system to a middle- school child?
It functions like a remote control that moves a robotic arm

The peripheral nervous system includes the ________ that carry/carries messages from the body to the central nervous system
Sensory neurons

Based on one’s knowledge of neural networks, what would one expect to happen when young children take ballet lessons several times a week?
The neurons involved in complex ballet moves will connect with each other to form networks

An autonomic reflex such as a knee jerk or withdrawing a hand from a flame involves:
the spinal chord

After being startled awake in the middle of the night, it turned out that the noise heard was the closet rod breaking from the weight of her winter coats. Knowing that she began to calm down and her heart stopped racing. Her ________ has been activated.
Parasympathetic Nervous System

A man’s wife wakes him from a peaceful slumber to tell him to tell him that she heard a noise. As he slowly gets up to investigate, his heart begins to race, his mouth is dry, and he begins to sweat: his __________ has been activated.
Sympathetic nervous system

Which of thees muscles are controlled by the somatic nervous system?
Skeletal muscles, such as muscles of the arm and hand

The parasympathetic nervous system is to ______ as the sympathetic nervous system is to _______.
energy conservation; energy consumption

Dr. Spanos is interested in studying how the approximately 400 trillion synapses of an adult brain are organized into an information-processing system. He should consider studying which topic?
Neural Networks

This part of the peripheral nervous system controls the voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles.
Somatic

This part of one’s nervous system helps to conserve energy as it calms one down after a stressful event.
Parasympathetic

Dr. Paivio studies the similarities between the endocrine system and the nervous system. Which might he conclude?
Both systems secrete molecules that activate receptors elsewhere.

If one were to compare the endocrine system and the body’s eletrochemical information system in terms of speed, one might call the former a ______ and the latter a ______.
tortoise; hare

An example of the interaction of the nervous and endocrine systems can be seen in the human response to danger. The ______ orders the adrenal glands to release the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which act to provide a surge of energy.
Autonomic Nervous System

Endocrine glands that play an important role in helping people respond to stress are the:
Adrenal Glands

Simon’s boss tells him some news that disturbs him, but a phone call from his spouse distracts Simon. After he gets off the phone, Simon has a lingering feeling that something is not quite right, but he cannot pinpoint what it is. It is likely he is reacting to the continued effect of:
Hormones

“Neurotransmitter” is to “synaptic gap” as “hormone” is to:
Bloodstream

A friend has asked Max to explain how hormones influence a person’s interest in certain behaviors. Which topic could Max NOT address?
Decision-making

This endocrine gland secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands.
The Pituitary Gland

The correct order of the feedback system which reveals the intimate connection of the nervous and endocrine systems is:
brain, pituitary, other glands, hormones, body and brain

Which chemical messenger is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone?
Norepinephrine

In addition to controlling other endocrine glands, the pituitary also has primary responsibility for regulating:
Growth

People who engage in extreme sports often participate in order to feel the rush of epinephrine and norepinephrine. This rush comes from the:
Adrenal glands

A firefighter wakes in the middle of the night to the sound of an alarm. It is likely that his/her _____ have released epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Adrenal Glands

The endocrine system is made up of ____ that secrete ______.
glands; hormones

Betty’s metabolism has been irregular and she has been moody, tired, and weak. There is most likely an abnormality with her ____ gland.
Thyroid

The pituitary gland is located in the:
Brain

The ______ triggers the ovaries and testes to release sex hormones.
Pituitary gland

If a 2-year-old boy’s pituitary gland is not functioning correctly, what might be the consequences?
His physical growth might be affected

The endocrine system is the body’s:
“slow” chemical communication system.

This part of the endocrine system regulates the level of sugar in the blood.
Pancreas

Compared to messages delivered by the nervous system, messages delivered by the endocrine system are:
slower to arrive and longer lasting

The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine ______ blood pressure and ______ blood sugar levels.
raises; raises

Which is an important part of the endocrine system but is not an endocrine gland?
The hypothalamus

The production and transmission of hormones in the endocrine system is Most similar to which of the following scenarios?
Lisa types a text message, which her friend shows to a third party who then reacts to it.

These chemical messengers are mostly manufactured by the endocrine glands, and they can influence human interest in sex, food, and aggression.
Hormones

J.B. was diagnosed with an imbalance in the regulation of calcium in his blood. This imbalance was caused by abnormal:
Parathyroids

In terms of their length of effect, endocrine messages are to _____ as neural messages are to _____.
Marble sculptures; sand castles

This technique reveals blood flow and brain functioning, as well as brain structure, through a special application of another neuronimaging technique.
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

The ______ of the cerebral cortex are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
Association Areas

Dr. Snell studies the part of the brain that is active when people are lying. She asks half of her participants to tell the truth about an event from their childhood and half to tell a lie about an event from their childhood. Which brain imaging technique should she use to detect brain areas that are active when the participants are lying?
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is called the:
Hypothalamus

If a researcher electrically stimulates the ______ in an animal, the animal will immediately wake up and be alert.
Reticular Formation

Dr. Hauser is a neurosurgeon working with patients who have major epileptic seizures. What part of the brain might DR. Hauser sever to help reduce his patients’ seizures?
Corpus callosum

In 1949, Gluseppe Moruzzi and Horace Magoun severed a cat’s _______ from higher brain regions; the cat lapsed into a permanent coma.
Reticular formation

Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is MOST directly involved in vision?
occipital

The success functioning of children who have experienced the surgical removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere BEST illustrates the value of:
plasticity

This brain structure helps coordinate movement and enables one type of nonverbal learning.
cerebellum

In his research on the limbic system, Dr. Harrington electrically stimulates the _____ of cats and then measures their rage and reactions.
Amygdala

Dr. Render is a neuropsychologist who works with patients who have had surgery to sever their corpus callosums in order to reduce severe seizures. When she presents the word “SAL-TED” to one patient, “SAL” transmits to his left visual field and “TED” to his right visual field. She then asks him to tell her what he saw. What does this partient say?
TED

Research with split-brain patients led Michael Gazzaniga to conclude that the ______ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.
Left cerebral hemiphere

If a researcher is interested in measuring both the structure and function of the brain, which technique would be BEST to recommend?
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

The ______ is responsible for heartbeat and breathing.
Medulla

The limbic system structure that influences aggression is called the:
Amygdala

Brain activity results in telltale electrical signals that can be detected by a(n):
Electroencephalogram (EEG)

Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is MOST directly involved in speaking?
Frontal

Ralph was involved in a bar fight and sustained a blow to the back of his head from a beer bottle. He was dazed and could not see for about 2 minutes. Which lobe was affected?
occipital

The ______ is to sensory input as an old-fashioned switchboard was to telephone calls.
Thalamus

John was injuried in a car accident and lost consciousness for 10 minutes. He sustained numerous lacerations, a right femoral contusion, and had a large open wound on his head . When he arrived at the emergency, the attending physician immedialty ordered which neuroimaging technique to rule out any soft tissue damage to the brain?
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

MRI scans indicate that well- practice pianists have a larger-than-usual auditory cortex area, which encodes piano sounds. This BEST illiterates:
Plasticity

To obtain a scan using theis technique, a patient is injected with (or ingests) a low and harmless dose of a short-lived radioactive glucose.
Positron Emission Topography (PET)

This technique produces computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissues.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

_________ is to psychology as the microscope is to biology.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Fallowing massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was MOST strikingly debilitated by:
irritability

A positron emission tomography (PET) scan depicts brain activity by:
Detecting where radioactive forms of glucose are located during a given task.