Chapter 2 Chemistry

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What makes a mixture heterogeneous?
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do not blend smoothly throughout; it does not have a uniform composition; the individual substances remain distinct
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What makes a mixture homogeneous?
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it has a uniform composition; individual substances cannot be seen; always in one phase *** aka solutions***
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What is another name for a homogeneous mixture?
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solution
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States of Matter
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solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
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Definite
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Not changing
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All solids, liquids, and gases have…
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MASS
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Difference between solids and liquids
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Solids have definite shape and liquids have an indefinite shape.
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Difference between solids and gases
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Solids have definite volume and gases have an indefinite volume.
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Physical Change
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Alters the appearance , does not change the composition of a substance Cutting, seperating mixture, dissolving, phase changes
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Example of Mixture
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trail mix
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5 Signs of a Chemical change?
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Color change Gas produced Formation of a precipitate (solid) Energy change (temperature or light) odor produced or change
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Chemical change
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a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter.
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Density
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Mass / Volume
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Example of physical change
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sugar dissovling
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Example of chemical change
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milk sours
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Examples of physical properties
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density, luster, odor, melting point, boiling point, color, malleable
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Examples of chemical properties
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flammability, corrosion, reactivity
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Element
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Simplest form of matter with a unique set of properties
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Extensive Physical Property
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Size
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Compound
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Substance containing atoms of two or more elements chemically combined.
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Intensive Physical Property
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DO NOT depend on amount of substance available Density, melting / boiling point (Dwater is alwaaays 1.00g/mL)
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Mixture
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Two or more elements or compounds that are blended together. NOT CHEMICALLY COMBINED. CAN BE SEPARATED!
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Examples of mixtures in your kitchen
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Orange Juice, cereal, Salad Dressing
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Intensive Property
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Color
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As temperature increases, particle speed _______, the force of the particles ____ and the volume of the substance ______
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increases, increases, increases
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Physical techniques to seperate mixtures
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Distillation (boiling points) Filtration (large solid particles from liquid) Chromatography Crystallization (boiling away the solvent – water)
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Physical Properties
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Properties that describe the look or feel of a substance
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Chemical Properties
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Characteristics of matter that describe how it changes when it reacts with other matter
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Physical Change
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A change in size or shape, but still the same type of matter
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Chemical Change
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A change that produces new matter with different properties from the original matter
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Solid
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Something that has a definite shape and volume
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Liquid
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Has a definite volume and takes on the shape of its container
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Gas
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Has no definite shape or volume
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Solid, liquid, gas
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Three states of matter
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Mass
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The amount of matter in a given amount of space
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Volume
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The amount of space matter takes up (LxWxH)
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Matter
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“Stuff” anything that has mass and takes up space and you can see or touch
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compound
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substance made of two or more elements properties of this differ from chemical and physical property of the elements of which it is composed
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mixture
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substance in which components are not chemically combined ( i.e. oil and water mixed still settle in layer and look and feel like oil and water)
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physical properties
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can be observed and measured without causing chemical change in a substance
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chemical properties
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can be observed only when one substance reacts with another substance
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atoms and molecules in solid are in ____ position
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fixed
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atoms and molecules in liquid are …
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closer together but freer to change positions
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atoms and molecules in a gas are..
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move freely to fill any contanier
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water
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the only substance on earth that occurs naturally as a solid, liquid and gas- due to Earth’s narrow temperature range
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density
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ratio of the mass of an object divided by its volume. a material that is less dense will float in a material that is more dense ( oil floats in water… egg floats in salt water..ice floats in water)
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Which is not a physical state of matter? Gas Water Liquid Solid
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water
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Term gas is limited to those substances that exist in the gaseous state at
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room temperature
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Matter that has a uniform and definite composition is called a
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substance
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What is used to separate mixtures
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filtration
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What happens during distillation
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liquid is boiled to produce a vapor then is condensed
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Horizontal row is a
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period
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Vertical row is a
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group
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Elements are placed on the table by increasing
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Atomic Number
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Each number is represented by a
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chemical symbol
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T/F Elements can be easily separated into simpler substances
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False
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T/F The properties of compounds are different from those of their component elements
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True
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What is used to represent an element?
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A symbol
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What are chemical symbols used for?
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To write chemical formulas
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T/F The elements that make up a compound are always present in the same proportions
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True
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Is burning paper a physical change or a chemical change? How do you know?
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The product is a new substance
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_____ can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
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compounds
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If a composition of a material is not fixed, the material is a _______
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mixture
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A change in state is an example of an _______
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irreversible change
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How can physical changes be classified?
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Physical changes can be classified as reversible or irreversible.
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Phase
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Used to describe any part of a sample with uniform composition and properties.
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Distillation
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A liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed into a liquid.
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Filtration
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The process that separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogenous mixture
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Ways to separate mixtures
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Filtration, Distillation, and evaporation
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Every Chemical change involves
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a transfer of energy
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What differs between chemical and physical change
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During chemical change, the composition of matter always changes. during a physical change, the composition of the matter never changes.
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Distilled water
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Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the steam
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During any chemical reaction, the mass of the _______ is always equal to the mass of the ________
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products, reactants
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Precipitate
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A solid that forms and settles out of liquid mixture.
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Law of conservation of mass States that in any
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physical change or chemical reaction, mass is conserved.
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Cut, Split, Grind, Crush… Reversible or irreversible?
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Irreversible
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Boil, Freeze, Melt, and Condense… Reversible or irreversible
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Reversible

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