Chapter 2 BioChemistry Vocabulary Words

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Atom
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(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
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Element
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an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up
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Compound
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(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
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Ion
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a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
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Ionic bond
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the chemical link between two atoms caused by the electrostatic force between oppositely-charged ions in an ionic compound.
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Covalent bond
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the chemical link between two atoms in which electrons are shared between them.
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Molecule
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(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
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Hydrogen bond
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a connection that fastens things together
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Cohesion
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the state of cohering or sticking together
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Adhesion
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the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition
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Solvent
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a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
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Solute
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the dissolved substance in a solution
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Solution
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a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
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Acid
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harsh or corrosive in tone
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Base
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any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water
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pH
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(chemistry) p(otential of) H(ydrogen)
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Monomer
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a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
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Polymer
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a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
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Carbohydrate
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an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals
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Lipid
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an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents
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Protein
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any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells
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Reactant
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a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
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Product
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a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
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Catalyst
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(chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
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Enzyme
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any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
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Substrate
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the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment

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