Chapter 19: The Expansion of Europe in the Eighteenth Century

question

open-field system
answer

a system of village farming developed by peasants where the land was divided into large fields which were in turn cut into strips. There were no divided fences or hedges and it was farmed as a community
question

Three field rotations
answer

helped keep fields fertile
question

Traditional village rights
answer

reinforced traditional patterns of farming
question

Peasants
answer

were exploited in a number of ways, with those in Eastern Europe generally the worst off
question

The use of more complex systems of crop rotation
answer

The use of more complex systems of crop rotation
question

Grain crops
answer

were alternated with nitrogen-storing crops
question

enclosure movement
answer

meant an end to common lands and to the independence of the rural poor who relied on them to survive
question

One important Dutch advantage
answer

a very dense population
question

The English
answer

were adept at learning from the Dutch.
question

Jethro Tull
answer

gained fame in experimental agriculture and animal husbandry, was enthusiastic about using horses rather than oxen. He advocated sowing seed with drilling equipment rather than scattering it by hand. he was an important English innovator
question

By the mid-eighteenth century, English agriculture was
answer

in the process of a radical transformation
question

Half of all English land was enclosed by
answer

1700
question

Enclosure marked
answer

the emergence of market-oriented estate agriculture and of a landless rural proletariat
question

Limitations on Population Growth
answer

Famine, disease, and war were the usual checks on growth. Europe’s population growth was kept fairly low.
question

The New Pattern of the Eighteenth Century
answer

Fewer deaths occurred, in part due to the disappearance of the plague.Advances in medicine did little to decrease the death rate.Improved sanitation promoted better public health. An increase in the food supply meant fewer famines and epidemics.
question

The two main participants in the putting-out system
answer

were the merchant capitalist and the rural worker
question

Merchants loaned, or “put out,” raw materials to
answer

workers who processed the raw materials and returned finished goods to the merchant
question

putting-out system
answer

term used to describe the 18th century rural industry
question

Throughout most of Europe’s history,_______ has employed more people than any other industry
answer

the textile industry
question

Most participants in cottage industry worked in
answer

textiles
question

Cottage industry was a
answer

family enterprise
question

Relations between workers and employers were
answer

often marked by conflict
question

Europe’s guild system reached its highest point in
answer

the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
question

Guild masters were
answer

at the top of the world of work
question

Guilds jealously
answer

restricted their membership
question

Over the course of the eighteenth century, some guilds
answer

grew more accessible to women
question

Northern European households
answer

made new choices about the allocation of time and resources
question

Economic and social change in the eighteenth century
answer

laid the foundation for the Industrial Revolution
question

English mercantilism was characterized by
answer

government regulations that served the interests both of the state and of private individuals
question

Mercantilism in other European countries
answer

generally served only state interests
question

The Navigation Acts of 1651-1663
answer

the result of the English desire to increase both military and private wealth, required that goods imported from Europe into England and Scotland be carried on British-owned ships with British crews or on ships of the country producing the article etc
question

After defeating the Dutch, England fought a series of wars with France for maritime domination of the world
answer

War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713), War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748), The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)
question

The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)
answer

ended with British winning full control over India and North America.
question

Colonial populations provided
answer

an expanding market for English manufactured goods
question

English exports were increasingly
answer

balanced and diversified
question

Despite their losses, the French profited enormously
answer

from colonial trade
question

In Britain’s North American colonies cheap land and scarce labor resulted in the following:
answer

Rapid increase in the colonial population in the eighteenth century. Import of African slaves to tobacco plantations in southern colonies.Growing prosperity for British colonists.
question

The forced migration of millions of Africans
answer

was a key element in the Atlantic system and western European economic expansion.
question

______ participated in the slave trade
answer

Africans
question

Under Philip V (r. 1700-1746) Spain _________________
answer

recovered economically and successfully defended her American colonies
question

Rising silver exports in the eighteenth century
answer

helped create a class of wealthy Creole merchants
question

Creole
answer

people of Spanish blood born in America
question

Creole estate owners dominated
answer

much of the peasant population through debt peonage, really a form of serfdom
question

The large middle group in the Spanish colonies were
answer

the mestizos
question

mestizos
answer

the offspring of Spanish men and Indian women
question

At the end of the sixteenth century, the Dutch became
answer

major players in the Asian spice trade
question

The Dutch replaced the Portuguese as ________,transforming Asian business partners into dependents.
answer

the dominant European power in the Indian Ocean trade world
question

In the eighteenth century, the Dutch faced fierce from
answer

the English East India Company
question

The British focused their attention on
answer

India
question

Britain’s great rival in India was
answer

France
question

By the early 1800s, the British had gained
answer

economic and political dominance over much of the subcontinent
question

Adam Smith
answer

one of the Enlightenment’s most original thinkers, challenged mercantilist ideas with his defense of free trade and his argument for keeping government interference in the economy to a minimum (The Wealth of Nations [1776])
question

The Wealth of Nations [1776]
answer

written by Adam Smith
question

Adam Smith’s work became
answer

the basis of the classic argument for economic liberalism
question

Agricultural revolution
answer

the period from the mid-seventh century on ib Europe during which great agricultural process was made and the fallow was gradual eliminated
question

Altantice slave trade
answer

forced migration of millions of Africans to work in servitude during the 18th century. By the peak of the 1780s, shipments of black men and women averaged about 80,000 per year
question

common lands
answer

the open meadows maintained by villages for public use
question

Cottage industry
answer

domestic industry, a stage of rural industrial development with wage workers and hand tools that necessarily preceded the emeragence of large-scale factory industry
question

Crop rotation
answer

the system by which farmers would rotate the types of crops grown in each field as to not deplete the soil of its natural resources
question

Debt peonage
answer

a system which allowed a planter or rancher to keep his workers/slaves in perpetual debt bondage by periodically advancing food, shelter, and a little money; it is a form of serfdom
question

Economic liberalism
answer

based on the writings of Adam Smith, it is the belief in free trade and competition. Smith argued that the invisible hand of free competition would benefit all individuals, rich and poor
question

gulid system
answer

found in most of Europe in the 17th and the 18th centuries, and were used as a means to encourage high quality production and collect taxes
question

Industrious revolution
answer

a term used to describe the burst of major inventions and technical changes they witnessed in certain industries
question

mercantilism
answer

system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state
question

proletarianization
answer

the transformation of large numbers of samll peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners
question

Treaty of Paris
answer

ratified British victory on all colonial fronts in 1763
question

the biggest problem encountered in medieval agriculture was
answer

soil exhaustion
question

cottage workers in putting-out system typically made these types of cloth
answer

woolen, cotton, and linen
question

statements regarding membership of women in guilds
answer

during the 18th century, some guilds grew more accessible to women. women were often hired as skilled workers by male guilds, often in defiance of official statues
question

. In Paris, Jean-Baptiste Colbert granted seamstresses
answer

a new all-female guild
question

until the end of the 18th century, crop rotation was extensively adopted only in
answer

the Low Countries and England
question

the high point of the guild system in most of Europe was during the
answer

17th Century

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member