Chapter 17 An Industrial Giant Emerges

question

By the end of the nineteenth century, U.S. industrial capacity
answer

dwarfed both Great Britain’s and Germany’s.
question

In the 25 years after the Civil War, railroads
answer

were probably the most significant element in American economic development.
question

The emphasis in railroad construction after 1865 was on
answer

organizing integrated systems.
question

In the late nineteenth century “Commodore” Cornelius Vanderbilt, Thomas A. Scott, and Jay Gould organized
answer

complex, transcontinental railroad lines.
question

Following the Civil War, most southern railroad systems were
answer

controlled by northern capitalists.
question

American land-grant railroads in the late nineteenth century
answer

sent agents overseas to recruit likely settlers and purchasers of railroad land.
question

After the railroads, the second most important development in America’s industrial advance in the late nineteenth century was the transformation of
answer

iron manufacturing.
question

The ________ process directed a stream of air into a mass of molten iron, burning off impurities, and greatly lowered the price of steel.
answer

Bessemer
question

Technological changes in the petroleum industry in the late nineteenth century
answer

occurred rapidly and put a premium on refining efficiency.
question

Known as the “Wizard of Menlo Park,” the inventor of the phonograph and the electric light bulb was
answer

Thomas A. Edison.
question

Which of the following interests of Alexander Graham Bell’s led to the invention of the telephone?
answer

deaf education
question

What was the relationship between competition and monopoly in American industry during the post-Civil War era?
answer

deflation combined with fierce competition to cause expansion to lead to concentration
question

From 1873 to 1893, the economy was characterized by
answer

intense competition for markets.
question

Railroads commonly encouraged large shippers to use their lines by
answer

giving them rebates.
question

As a result of the intense competition among railroads,
answer

the railroads were unstable financially and vulnerable to any downturn in the business cycle.
question

The first giant corporations, capitalized in the hundreds of millions of dollars, were
answer

steel corporations.
question

Andrew Carnegie dominated the ________ industry.
answer

steel
question

Andrew Carnegie was one of the first great tycoons to realize the importance of
answer

developing technological improvements.
question

When J. P. Morgan assembled United States Steel, he
answer

formed the first billion-dollar corporation.
question

By the middle of the 1880s, ________ monopolized the oil industry in the United States.
answer

John D. Rockefeller
question

John D. Rockefeller’s success was due primarily to his
answer

bold planning and risk-taking.
question

The theory of evolution by natural selection, which helped Americans justify their exploitation of others, was the work of
answer

Charles Darwin.
question

In general, as industry expanded
answer

Americans saw economic regulation as a way to release human energy and increase the area in which business could freely operate.
question

A prominent advocate of social Darwinism, William Graham Sumner was identified with the phrase
answer

“it’s root, hog, or die.”
question

Most Americans reacted to the growth of huge industrial and financial organizations and the increasing complexity of economic relations by
answer

fearing monopolistic power, yet being greedy for all the new goods and services.
question

Henry George, author of Progress and Poverty, advocated
answer

laissez-faire economics.
question

Henry George, Edward Bellamy, and Henry Demarest Lloyd were all late-nineteenth-century
answer

radical reformers.
question

The novelist who described America evolving into an ideal socialist state was
answer

Edward Bellamy.
question

Which of the following compared nineteenth-century society to a stagecoach in which the favored few rode in comfort while the masses pulled them along life’s route?
answer

Edward Bellamy
question

In The Cooperative Commonwealth, Laurence Gronlund
answer

provided the first serious attempt to explain the ideas of Karl Marx to Americans.
question

The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry was founded in 1867 by
answer

Oliver H. Kelley.
question

Granger-controlled legislatures attempted to
answer

regulate railroad rates.
question

The Supreme Court decision in the Wabash case concerned
answer

early railroad regulation.
question

The federal regulatory board, established in 1887 by Congress to supervise the affairs of railroads, investigate complaints, and issue “cease and desist” orders against railroads acting illegally, was the
answer

Interstate Commerce Commission.
question

The creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission in 1887
answer

challenged the philosophy of laissez-faire.
question

In 1890, Congress tried to restore competition by outlawing the restraint of interstate trade by corporate monopolies with the ________ Act.
answer

Sherman Antitrust
question

The Sherman Antitrust Act was drastically limited by the Supreme Court in
answer

United States v. E. C. Knight Company.
question

“Doubtless the power to control the manufacture of a given thing involves, in a certain sense, the control of its disposition…the exercise of that power may result in bringing the operation of commerce into play, it does not control it, and affects it only incidentally and indirectly.” The source of this quote is
answer

United States v. E. C. Knight Company.
question

The first union to welcome blacks, women, and immigrants into its ranks was the
answer

Knights of Labor.
question

As a result of the ________, membership in the Knights of Labor declined quickly because the public associated unions with violence and radicalism
answer

Haymarket Square riot
question

Established in 1886, the ________ was the prime example of “bread and butter” unionism.
answer

American Federation of Labor
question

The dramatic labor troubles of 1877 were
answer

more violent and destructive than any previous strike in America.
question

The leader of the American Railway Union in its dramatic 1894 strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company was
answer

Eugene Debs.
question

President Cleveland intervened in the Pullman strike on the pretext that
answer

the mail had to be delivered.
question

In the late nineteenth century, wealth, power, and influence were
answer

increasingly concentrated among the largest financiers.
question

As a result of the centralization and concentration of industry in the late nineteenth century,
answer

efficiency increased in industries which produced high-quality handmade goods.
question

In the late 1800s, the courts seemed most concerned with protecting
answer

the interests of the rich and powerful.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member