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Chapter 16: Treatment

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*Psychoanalysis* What is psychotherapy? Who is the “father” or psychoanalysis?
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*psychotherapy:* psychological intervention designed to help people resolve emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems and improve the quality of their lives Sigmund Freud is considered the “father” of pyschoanalysis
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*Psychoanalysis* Explain the beliefs that form the core of psychodynamic therapies. What is the goal of psychoanalysis?
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1. They believe the causes of abnormal behaviors, including unconscious conflicts, wishes, and impulses stem from traumatic or other adverse childhood experiences. 2. They strive to analyze (a) distressing thoughts and feelings clients avoid, (b) wishes and fantasies, (c) recurring themes and life patterns, (d) significant past events, and (e) the therapeutic relationship 3. They believe that when clients achieve insight into previously unconscious material, the causes and the significance of symptoms will become evident, often causing symptoms to disappear. According to Freud, the goal of psychoanalysis is to decrease guilt and frustration and make the unconscious conscious by bringing to awareness previously repressed impulses, conflicts, and memories. Psychoanalytical therapists, sometimes called “analysts,” attempt to fill this tall order using six primary approaches: Free association, interpretation, dream analysis, resistance, transference and working through
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*Psychoanalysis* In psychoanalysis, what are free association, dream analysis, interpretation, resistance and transference?
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*free association* technique in which clients express themselves without censorship of any sort *dream analysis* according to Freud, dreams express unconscious themes that influence the client’s conscious life. The therapist’s task is to interpret the relation of the dream to the client’s waking life and the dream’s symbolic significance. *resistance* attempts to avoid confrontation and anxiety associated with uncovering previously repressed thoughts, emotions, and impulses *transference* act of projecting intense, unrealistic feelings and expectations from the past onto the therapist *interpersonal therapy (IPT)* treatment that strengthens social skills and targets interpersonal problems, conflicts, and life transitions
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Developments in Psychoanalysis: The Neo-Freudian Tradition
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In contrast to Freudian therapists, neo-Freudian therapists are more concerned with conscious aspects of the client’s functioning. For example, according to Carl Jung, the foal of psychotherapy is individuation- the integration of opposing aspects of the personality, like passive versus aggressive tendencies, into harmonious “whole,” namely, the self. Jung considered their future goals as well as past experiences, and also emphasize the impact of cultural and interpersonal influences, such as close friendships and loving relationships, on behavior across the lifespan. The emphasis on interpersonal relationships is the hallmark of Harry Stack Sullivan’s interpersonal psychotherapy. According to Sullivan (1954), psychotherapy is a collaborative undertaking between client and therapist. Sullivan contented that the analyst’s proper role is that of participant observer. Through ongoing observations, the analyst discovers and communicates to clients their unrealistic attitudes and behaviors in everyday life.
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Gestalt therapy
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*Gestalt therapy* therapy that aims to integrate different and sometimes opposing aspects of personality into a unified sense of self Fritz Perls, founder of Gestalt therapy, was trained as a psychodynamic therapist, but imported some concepts from Gestalt psychology into a new brand of therapy. The word gestalt (configuration) means an organized whole. Gestalt therapists believe that people with psychological difficulties are “incomplete gestalts” because they’ve excluded from their awareness experiences and aspects of their personalities that trigger anxiety.
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*Humanistic approaches* What is humanistic therapy? Who was Carl Rogers? How does humanistic therapy differ from psychoanalysis?
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*Humanistic approaches* What are the three conditions of Person-Centered Therapy: unconditional positive regard, empathy and genuineness?
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*Behavioral Therapy/ Cognitive Therapy* Describe the characteristics of behavior therapy and different behavioral approaches. What assumptions underlie behavioral approaches to treatment? What are the assumptions of cognitive-behavioral therapies?
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*Behavioral Therapy/ Cognitive Therapy* What are systematic desensitization and exposure therapy? What is Flooding and how does it differ from exposure therapy? What is virtual reality exposure therapy? For what conditions are these treatments useful?
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*Behavioral Therapy/ Cognitive Therapy* Who is Aaron Beck? What are the assumptions underlying cognitive behavioral therapies?
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*Behavioral Therapy/ Cognitive Therapy* Who is Albert Ellis? What are the ABSs of Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy? What are the dirty dozen?
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*Behavioral Therapy/ Cognitive Therapy* With what kinds of disorders is Cognitive Behavior Treatment (CBT) most effective?
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*Behavioral Therapy/ Cognitive Therapy* What therapeutic components contribute to treatment success?
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*Evaluating different therapies* What is meta-analysis? What has meta-analysis found about the value of therapy?
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*Evaluating different therapies* What common factors underlie diverse treatments?
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*Evaluating different therapies* What are empirically supported treatments (EST) for depression, anxiety disorders and obesity?
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*Evaluating different therapies* What is Psychopharmacotherapy? For what condition is Throrazine prescribed (and how does it work)? For what condition is a Benzodiazepine medication prescribed? How does it work?
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Dr. Martinez, a psychodynamic therapist, was quite pleased when her patient improved, and she felt the patient was making excellent progress. In fact, the patient himself stated how great he was feeling although he still had difficulty realizing what the “main conflict” was. The lack of ability for the patient to have insight despite feeling great is an example of which of the six principles of scientific thinking?
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NOT D. Extraordinary Claims
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In humanistic therapies, some clients may first improve and then develop a stronger emotional bond with the therapist as a result of the therapy, while others may first develop a bond with the therapist and then improve. This demonstrates which of the six principles of scientific thinking?
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NOT b. Falsifiability
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According to the authors, the claims of Alcoholics Anonymous’ success
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a. is not supported by the available data
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According to Albert Ellis, our vulnerability to psychological disturbance is a product of the __________ of our irrational beliefs.
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c. frequency and strength
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An important consideration before undergoing psychosurgery is that
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a. the costs may be greater than the actual benefits received.
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Carmelo is giving a report to his graduate seminar on research on the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapies. Which point would you be most likely to hear him make if you were in that seminar?
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NOT a. Active confrontation of irrational thinking and the display of empathy are two important psychodynamic therapeutic techniques.
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By the 1950s, as many as __________ patients received psychosurgery.
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b. 50,000
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His work influenced the contemporary work of interpersonal therapy (IPT).
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NOT a. Jung
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________ allows psychotherapists to place persons in situations to confront and eliminate their fears that would either be infeasible or difficult to do in real life.
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d. Virtual reality exposure therapy
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People who have gone through therapy often recall their pretherapy adjustment as much worse than it actually was. This often leads them to ________ how much improvement resulted from their psychotherapy experience.
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b. overestimate
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According to this neo-Freudian, the goal of psychotherapy was individuation.
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NOT c. Sullivan
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________ cognitive therapy played an instrumental role in creating the field of cognitive-behavioral therapy.
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a. Beck’s
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Antidepressant prescriptions have _______ from 1988-1994 through 2005-2008.
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NOT b. tripled
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Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) has been marketed widely as a breakthrough treatment for ________________.
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c. anxiety disorders
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A key component of Ellis’s rational emotive behavior therapy is the psychotherapist’s
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a. active disputing and challenging of the client’s assumptions
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In what brand of psychotherapy would a clinical psychologist attempt to uncover the underlying unconscious conflicts and impulses that are the cause of one’s psychological difficulties?
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d. Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic
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After learning how to relax, Herman begins his systematic desensitization treatment for his claustrophobia by
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NOT deconstructing an anxiety hierarchy
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Which of the following is NOT one of the components of Ellis’s rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)?
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a. empathetic response
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Dismantling allows researchers to examine the effectiveness of isolated components of a broader treatment such as systematic desensitization and compare these effects with that of the full treatment package. Dismantling represents which of the six principles of scientific thinking?
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d. Ruling out rival hypotheses
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The ________ model of treatment for alcoholism assumes that people who are on the road to recovery will occasionally “slip.” This treatment attempts to teach people not to feel ashamed, guilty, or discouraged when these slips occur.
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d. relapse prevention
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Systematic desensitization was developed by ________.
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a. Wolpe
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A frequently prescribed medication for managing one’s attention problems is
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c. Ritalin
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Kennedy meets with a therapist who is trying to merge her “quiet expert” with her “risk taker” so that she’ll become a complete “risky expert.” This would be an example of
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c. Perls’ Gestalt therapy
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Alcoholics Anonymous is the largest organization for treating alcoholics and was founded in
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b. 1935
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In _________________, the client engages in role-playing with a therapist to learn and practice new skills.
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b. behavioral rehearsal
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A concern with the many 12-step approaches that are based on the as Alcoholics Anonymous model in dealing with various problems with living is that
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c. no research evidence exists for the effectiveness of these approaches.
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Research on the effectiveness of the different methods of psychotherapy suggests that
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b. behavioral, psychodynamic, and person-centered approaches are more helpful for patients than receiving no treatment.