Chapter 16

Term Definition
Caravel a light, fast sailing ship with a rudder and lateen sails
Henry the Navigator son of King John I of Portugal, patron and supporter of explorers
Vasco da Gama Portuguese explorer who traveled to Cailcut, India in 1497
Christopher Columbus Italian sailor who traveled west to reach China but discovered islands in the Caribbean instead
Ferdinand Magellan first explorer to attempt the circumnavigate the globe, while he was killed on the way, some of his sailors completed the journey
Circumnavigate travel completely around the world
Sir Francis Duke English explorer, second man to circumnavigate the globe
Henry Hudson Dutch sailor who looked unsuccessfully for the Northwest Passage and explored the river that is now named after him
Encomienda Spanish system in which a colonist received land and Native American workers to whom he was required to teach Christianity
Hernan Cortes Spanish explorer and conqueror of Mexico's Aztec empire
Conquistador Spanish term for conqueror; name for Spanish military leaders who fought against the native peoples of the Americas
Moctezuma II Aztec emperor at the time of Cortes's conquest of Mexico
Francisco Pizarro conqueror of the Inca Empire in Peru for the Spanish
Athualpa ruler of Inca Empire killed by Spanish invaders led by Pizarro
Viceroys officials who ruled large areas of Spain's American colonies in the king's name
Bartolome de Las Casas Spanish priest who criticized treatment of Native Americans, suggesting that slaves from Africa be used as laborers instead
Treaty of Tordesillas treaty signed in 1493 dividing the Americas between Spain and Portugal along an imaginary line
Columbian Exchange the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World
Mercantilism type of national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation
Balance of Trade the amount of goods sold by a country against those who purchased from other countries
Subsidies grants of money
Capitalism economic system in which most businesses are privately owned
joint-stock company businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and losses
Plantation businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and losses
Triangular Trade trading network that brought goods from Europe to Africa to be traded for slaves, took slaves from Africa to the Americas to be sold, then brought American goods back to Europe
Middle Passage name for the second leg of the triangular trade route, bringing captive Africans to the Americas, where they were sold as slaves
Olaudah Equiano African who wrote about the horrific conditions Africans endured on Middle Passages voyages
African Diaspora the spread of people of African descent through the Americas and Western Europe as a result of the slave trade, eventually spreading African culture throughout the Western world

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