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Chapter 15 Intrapersonal psychotherapy

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Cognitive model of schema development:
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In early childhood, we have beliefs about self and the world. Beliefs are grouped in schemas, or mental framework. Schemas can be adaptive or maladaptive. Common schemas include disconnection and rejection, impaired autonomy and performance, impaired limits, other directedness, and over-vigilance and inhibition.
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Grief
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common, but can become debilitating (complicated bereavement).Although grief is considered a normal emotion, not a psychiatric disorder, it can provide difficulties for people in mourning, particularly when the reaction is severe and continues over a long period of time.
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Interpersonal disputes
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struggles and disagreements.Often struggles, arguments, or disagreements with others, particularly on a continuing basis, can lead to depression.
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Role transitions:
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This is a broad category that includes many different types of life changes. E.g. natural disaster, divorce, or promotion.
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Interpersonal deficits
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lack of social skills (harder to treat)
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Goals
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with grief, help with mourning and reestablish interest in relationships and activities. For role transitions, mourn old role and master new role. For interpersonal deficits, improve or develop relationships
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Structure of session
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Initial phase, Middle phase, termination, what question begins session.
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Initial phase
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assess 4 areas and focus on 1-2, depression diagnosis (explained as a medical issue), and hope is instilled that a positive change can occur.
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middle phase:
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skills based on categories
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termination
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acknowledge sadness while focus on milestone
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What question begins session?
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How have things been since we last met?
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Encouragement of affect
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help client express painful emotion. This provides the therapist an opportunity to help with the solution. Ex: Therapist: It’s clear that this ongoing feud between you and your ex is really weighing you down. We are going to work together to help you feel better.
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Clarification:
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helps client clarify relationships; point out differences that he has discussed Point out between client’s perspective and behavior
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Communication analysis
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analyze interpersonal situation. Describe interaction exactly, including details such as tone of voice. Discuss alternatives to different situations.
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Evidence:
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RSPT (research supported psychological treatments) for depression (adolescents), binge-eating, bulimia, and bipolar disorder. It is also effective with pregnant women. Meta-analyses with CBT demonstrated that IPT(interpersonal therapy) was more effective for depression and CBT had a higher dropout rate
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Multicultural issues:
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Able to be tailored to different populations, e.g. transgender- specific approaches. Rural African American girls with excessive weight gain.
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Mind-body connection
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In US culture, mind and body are separate. Mind-body connection is part of other cutures and some holistic perspectives may integrate MBC
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Contribution of indigenous/queer/ethnic minority:
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indigenous—healing circles. LGBTQ counseling—affirmative; coming out process. Asian psychotherapy—mindfulness and Buddhism
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Creative therapies
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Dance movement therapy, Drama therapy, music therapy, art therapy application
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Dance movement therapy
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movement and dance, physical and emotional, client issue shown in movement. Help individuals grow and to interrelate psychological and physiological processes through movement or dance. E.g. exaggeration of movement; client issue shown in movement
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Drama therapy
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Can be a traditional client-therapist role or a dramatic role. E.g. puppets and masks; Improvise a play that therapist directs; sand tray
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Music therapy
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Music calms/stimulates; often used with severe disabilities. E.g. singing accompanied by music therapists
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Art therapy application
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create what gives you purpose, describe most important relationships in a picture, write something good for each initial name, draw the trauma you experienced, co-create painting with parter/family member(s), express who you are now, express who you’d like to become in two separate sessions. Art can be incorporated in variety of approaches. Express images that cannot be explained verbally, increases self and other awareness, become creative in art and life, develop healthy form of communication and coping, tangible record of emotion/progress for future use, and access freedom of childhood.