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Test Answers on Learn Chapter 15

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syndrome
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A set of related conditions.
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True or False? Most people who suffer from mental illness are dangerous.
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False: Most people who suffer from mental illness are not dangerous to others or even themselves.
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True or False? Mental disorders are relatively rare, and most families are free of mental disorders.
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False: Almost half of adults will suffer from a diagnosable mental illness of some kind during their lifetime.
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comorbidity
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The occurrence of two or more psychological disorders at the same time.
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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)
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Axis I refers broadly to the principal disorder that needs immediate attention; e.g., a major depressive episode, an exacerbation of schizophrenia, or a flare-up of panic disorder. It is usually (though not always) the Axis I disorder that brings the person “through the office door.” Axis II lists any personality disorder that may be shaping the current response to the Axis I problem. Axis II also indicates any developmental disorders, such as mental retardation or a learning disability, which may be predisposing the person to the Axis I problem. For example, someone with severe mental retardation or a paranoid personality disorder may be more likely to be “bowled over” by a major life stressor, and succumb to a major depressive episode. Axis III lists any medical or neurological problems that may be relevant to the individual’s current or past psychiatric problems; for example, someone with severe asthma may experience respiratory symptoms that are easily confused with a panic attack, or indeed, which may precipitate a panic attack. Axis IV codes the major psychosocial stressors the individual has faced recently; e.g., recent divorce, death of spouse, job loss, etc. Axis V codes the “level of function” the individual has attained at the time of assessment, and, in some cases, is used to indicate the highest level of function in the past year. This is coded on a 0-100 scale, with 100 being nearly “perfect” functioning (none of us would score that high!).
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Anxiety disorders
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Characterized by motor tension, hyperactivity, and apprehensive expectation/thoughts. Include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
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Specific phobias
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Undue anxiety response to particular objects or situations
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generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
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A state of pervasive and excessive anxiety lasting at least 6 months.
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panic attacks
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Brief episodes of anxiety associated with a perception of threat and occurring because of fear of danger, an inability to escape, embarrassment, or specific objects.
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panic disorder
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An anxiety disorder characterized by panic attacks and persistent anxiety about having more attacks.
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phobia
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An anxiety disorder: an ongoing and irrational fear of a particular object, situation, or activity.
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social phobia (social anxiety disorder)
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An anxiety disorder: fear of humiliation in the presence of others, characterized by intense self-consciousness about one’s appearance, behavior, or both.
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agoraphobia
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An anxiety disorder involving fear of being in places from which escape might be difficult or in which help might not be available, should a panic attack occur.
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obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
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An anxiety disorder in which obsessive thoughts lead to compulsive behaviors.
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obsession
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An unwanted thought, word, phrase, or image that persistently and re- peatedly comes into a person’s mind and causes distress.
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compulsion
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A repetitive behavior performed in response to uncontrollable urges or according to a ritualistic set of rules.
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DSM-5describes 21 major categories of disorder, covering more than 350 distinct disorders. Figure 15.2 lists the major ones. In this chapter, we examine 10 of the 21 major disorders:
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1.) neurodevelopment disorders 2.) schizophrenia 3.) depressive disorders 4.) bipolar disorders 5.) anxiety disorders 6.) obsessive-compulsive disorder 7.) post-traumatic stress disorder 8.) dissociative disorders 9.) somatic symptom disorders 10.) personality disorders
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
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A type of trauma- and stressor related disorder that involves intrusive and persistent cognitive, emotional, and physiological symptoms triggered by catastrophic or horrifying events.
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Dissociative disorders
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Psychological disorders characterized by extreme splits or gaps in memory, identity, or consciousness. Involve a sudden loss of memory or change of identity. They produce extreme disruptions or gaps in memory, identity, or consciousness. These disorders lack a clear physical cause, such as brain injury, and often stem from extreme stress, trauma, or abusive experiences, especially during childhood
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dissociative identity disorder (DID)
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A dissociative disorder in which a person develops at least two distinct personalities, each with its own memories, thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. Some psychiatrists question the legitimacy of the disorder.
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avoidant personality disorder
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An anxious-fearful personality disorder characterized by extreme fear of being criticized, low self-esteem, and avoidance of social interaction..
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dependent personality disorder
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An anxious-fearful personality disorder characterized by fear of being rejected and a strong need to be cared for.
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obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)
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An anxious-fearful personality disorder characterized by rigid habits and extreme perfectionism; more general than obsessive-compulsive disorder
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personality disorders
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Patterns of cognition, emotion, and behavior that develop in late childhood or adolescence and are maladaptive and inflexible; more consistent than clinical disorders.
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3 Cluster Odd-eccentric Dramatic-emotional Anxious-fearful
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1.) Odd-eccentric Schizoid Lack of interest in social relationships, inappropriate or at emotion, thought, and coldness Schizotypal Isolated, odd, and bizarre thoughts and beliefs Paranoid Extreme, unwarranted, and maladaptive suspicion 2.) Dramatic-emotional Histrionic Wild, exaggerated behaviors, extreme need for attention, suicidal, seductive, unstable relationships, shifting moods Borderline Shifting moods, dramatic, impulsive, self-injury (e.g., cutting) Narcissistic Grandiose thoughts and sense of one’s importance, exploitative, arrogant, lack of concern for others Antisocial Impulsive, violent, deceptive, and criminal behavior; no respect for social norms, ruthless 3.) Anxious-fearful Avoidant Anxious and worrying, sense of inadequacy, fear of being criticized, nervousness, avoids social interaction Dependent Pervasive selflessness, need to be cared for, fear of rejection, total dependence on and submission to others Obsessive-compulsive Extreme perfectionism and anxiety over minor disruption of routine, very rigid activities and relationships, pervades most aspects of everyday life
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schizoid personality disorder
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An odd-eccentric personality disorder characterized by a desire to avoid close relationships as well as by emotional aloofness, reclusively, and a lack of humor. Do not want close relationships; are emotionally aloof, reclusive, and humorless; and want to live solitary lives.
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schizotypal personality disorder
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An odd-eccentric personality disorder characterized by a desire to live in an isolated and asocial life but also by the presence of odd thoughts, perceptual distortions, and beliefs. is isolated and asocial but in addition has very odd thoughts, perceptual distor- tions, and beliefs. For instance, people with schizotypal personality disorder may believe that stories on TV or in the newspaper were written directly about them. Moreover, the person dresses, acts, and appears in peculiar or eccentric ways.
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paranoid personality disorder
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An odd-eccentric personality disorder characterized by extreme suspicions and mistrust of others in unwarranted and maladaptive ways. are extremely suspicious and mistrustful of other people, in ways that are both unwarranted and not adaptive.
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histrionic personality disorder
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A dramatic-emotional personality disorder characterized by the desire to be the center of attention and by dramatic, seductive, flamboyant, and exaggerated behaviors.
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borderline personality disorder
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A dramatic-emotional personality disorder characterized by out-of- control emotions, fear of being abandoned by others, and vacillation between idealizing and despising people who are close to the person with the disorder.
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narcissistic personality disorder
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A dramatic-emotional personality disorder characterized by having an extremely positive and arrogant self-image and being extraordinarily self-centered; other symptoms are an exaggerated sense of self- importance and grandiosity.
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antisocial personality disorder
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A dramatic-emotional personality disorder characterized by extremely impulsive, ruthless, and callous behaviors; a serious and potentially dangerous disorder.
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attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
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A childhood disorder characterized by inability to focus attention for more than a few minutes, to remain still and quiet, and to do careful work.
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autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
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A childhood disorder characterized by severe language and social im- pairment along with repetitive habits and inward-focused behaviors.
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joint attention
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The ability to make eye contact with others and to look in the same direction as someone else.
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psychotic disorders
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Psychological disorders of thought and perception, characterized by an inability to distinguish between real and imagined perceptions.
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schizophrenia
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A psychotic disorder characterized by significant disturbances in thought and emotion, specifically problems with perception, including hallucinations.
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Major Symptoms of Schizophrenia
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• Delusions • Hallucinations • Disorganized speech • Grossly disorganized behavior or catatonic behavior (immobile and unresponsive, though awake) • Negative symptoms (such as not speaking or being unable to experience emotion)
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positive symptoms
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The perceptual experiences associated with schizophrenia, including hallucinations, delusional thinking, and disorganized thought and speech.
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hallucinations
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Convincing sensory experiences that occur in the absence of an external stimulus. Auditory illusions outside their head.
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delusions
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One of the symptoms of schizophrenia: false beliefs or exaggerations held despite evidence to the contrary, such as the idea that one is a famous person.
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negative symptoms
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Symptoms that include non responsiveness, immobility, emotional flatness, problems with speech, and inability to complete tasks. Include non responsiveness, emotional flatness, immobility or the striking of strange poses (catatonia), reduction of speaking, and inability to complete tasks. Traditionally, negative symptoms have been harder to diagnose and treat than positive symptoms.
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cognitive symptoms (of schizophrenia)
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Problems with working memory, attention, verbal and visual learning and memory, reasoning and problem solving, processing, and speech.
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word salad
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The speech of people with schizophrenia, which may follow grammatical rules but be nonsensical in terms of content.
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Maternal Infections and Schizophrenia
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during fetal development, neural growth can occur at a rate of 250,000 new neurons per minute and peak at approximately 3 million per minute (Purves & Lichtman, 1985)!
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Schizophrenia and the Brain
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Frontal lobe Critical to problem solving, insight, and other high-level reasoning. Disturbances in schizophrenia lead to difficulty in planning actions and organizing thoughts. Basal ganglia Involved in movement and emotions and in integrating sensory information. Abnormal functioning in schizophrenia is thought to contribute to paranoia and hallucinations. Limbic system Involved in emotion. Disturbances are thought to contribute to the agitation frequently seen in schizophrenia. Auditory system Enables humans to hear and understand speech. In schizophrenia, overactivity of Wernicke’s area (speech comprehension) can create auditory hallucinations. Hippocampus Mediates learning and memory formation, intertwined functions that are impaired in schizophrenia Occipital lobe Processes visual sensations. People with schizophrenia rarely have full-blown visual hallucinations, but disturbances in this area contribute to such difficulties as interpreting complex images, recognizing motion, and reading emotions on others’ faces.
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Neurochemistry of Schizophrenia
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For decades, the prevailing view on the neurochemistry of schizophrenia was the dopamine hypothesis, which states that people with schizophrenia have an excess of dopamine activity in certain areas of the brain
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True or False? Schizophrenia is a disorder of split personalities.
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False: Schizophrenia and split personality (multiple personality, now known as dissociative disorder) are very different disorders.
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diathesis-stress model
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Explanation for the origin of psychological disorders as a combination of biological predispositions (diathesis) plus stress or an abusive environment.
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depressive disorder
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The highest-order category of the depressive disorders; it subsumes all forms of depression, including major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder. The depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and anxiety disorder are marked especially by disturbances in emotional behavior that prevent people from functioning effectively in everyday life.
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major depressive disorder
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A mood disorder characterized by pervasive low mood, lack of motivation, low energy, and feelings of worthlessness and guilt that last for at least 2 consecutive weeks.
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According to DSM-5, to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder, one must have at least five of nine symptoms associated with major depression, which must continue for at least 2 consecutive weeks (APA, 2013):
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1. Depressed (sad, listless) mood that stays low all day for several days 2. Reduced interest or pleasure in doing anything 3. Significant change in body weight (indicating dieting or overeating) 4. Sleep disturbances 5. Sluggishness or restlessness 6. Daily fatigue or loss of energy 7. Daily feelings of worthlessness, self-reproach, or excessive guilt 8. Lack of ability to concentrate or think clearly 9. Recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation
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persistent depressive disorder (PDD)
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A form of depression that is milder in intensity but longer in duration than major depressive disorder.
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True or False? Extreme stress can make you depressed.
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True: Stress can cause depression and even premature aging of cells.
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bipolar disorder
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A mood disorder characterized by substantial mood fluctuations, cycling between very low (depressive) and very high (manic) moods.
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manic episodes
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One mood cycle in bipolar disorder, typically involving increased energy, sleeplessness, euphoria, irritability, delusions of grandeur, increased sex drive, and “racing” thoughts that last at least 1 week.
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hypomanic episodes
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Consists of same symptoms as manic episodes (e.g., increased energy, sleeplessness, euphoria, irritability, delusions of grandeur, increased sex drive, and “racing” thoughts) but are shorter in duration.
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symptoms of mania is D-I-G-F-A-S-T
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D = Distractibility I = Indiscretion G = Grandiosity F = Flight of ideas A = Activity increased S = Sleep (decreased need for) T = Talkativeness
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cyclothymia
cyclothymia
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A relatively mild but longer-lasting form of bipolar disorder. both the manic and the depressive episodes are less severe than they are in bipolar II disorder—that is, the hypomanic and depressive symptoms never reach the criteria for hypomania and major depression.
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GABA
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receptor is a neuron (brain cell) shaped to receive the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA functions as the major chemical messenger that slows and stops chemical reactions throughout the central nervous system.
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Somatic Symptom Disorder
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A psychological disorder in which a person complains of multiple physical disorders that cause disruption and that persist for at least 6 months.
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illness anxiety disorder
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Fear of somatic symptoms but without any somatic symptoms.
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True or False? All the great artists in history can be viewed as psychologically disturbed.
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False: Creative artists are at higher risk for mental illness over the course of their lifetimes, but there are many exceptions to the rule. There is no causal connection between the two.
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dysthymia
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Persistent depressive disorder persistent depressive disorder (PDD, previously called dysthymia).
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bipolar disorder
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Manic episodes characterized by distractibility, increased activity, euphoria, grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, talkativeness, flight of ideas, and indiscretion Extreme swings in mood between depressive and manic episodes
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major depressive disorder
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Change in eating behavior, intense anxiety or sadness, feeling of being disconnected, and/or inability to take pleasure in enjoyable experiences Low mood, lack of motivation, low energy, feelings of worthlessness and guilt that last for at least two weeks
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dissociative identity disorder (DID)
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A dissociative disorder in which a person develops at least two distinct personalities, each with its own memories, thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. Some psychiatrists question the legitimacy of the disorder.
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schizoid personality disorder
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Attention de cit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
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Inattention Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes, cannot sustain attention, does not listen when spoken to, does not follow through on instructions Hyperactivity Fidgets with hands or feet, leaves seat in classroom when sitting is expected, inappropriate and excessive running or climbing, talks excessively Impulsivity Blurts out answers before question is complete, cannot wait turn, often intrudes or interrupts others