Chapter 14 Life Span

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Bronfenbrenner
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microsystem- individual lives, family, peers mesosystem- connections between families exosystem- parent’s work macrosystem- culture, ethnic group chronosystem- sociohistorical circumstances
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Belsky
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direct and indirect interactions with children
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changes in families
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– high immigration rates of Latinos and Asians – stressors (language, identity, relocation) – more urban and suburban dwelling – more family mobility across the US – more exposure to media and technology – more divorces and remarriage
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developmental trajectories
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children- timing of child care and middle school entry adults- timing of family tasks and changes – planned (delayed marriages) – unplanned (job loss and divorce)
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single adults
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dramatic increase from 2000 to 2006 (ages 20 to 29) – stereotypes – advantages and disadvantages – settling down, changes occur
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cohabitating adults
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– U.S. 11% in 1970 and 60% today – expected to continue increasing – more in low income situations – more for companionship than love – higher in other countries – short duration in U.S.
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cohabitating older adults
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increasing numbers: 4% today – age differences – more stable, positive relationships – less likely to marry partner
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Coontz
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more fragile, increased equality, loving and intimate relationships, protection of children
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Gottman
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important self repair process – deep friendship and mutual respect – forgiveness and commitment are necessary, includes self-sacrifice
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premarital education
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– improves quality of marriage – may reduce risk of divorce – linked to higher commitment level to spouse, lower destructive level in marital conflict
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benefits of a good marriage
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– longer, healthier lives – lower levels of depression, anxiety, and anger
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children
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main reason for staying married
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verbal, physical, emotional abuse
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main causes of divorce for women
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fell out of love, cheating, different values
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main causes of divorce for men
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divorce
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– more likely early in marriage – rate decreasing since 1980s – higher in U.S. than other countries
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effects of divorce on children
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– sleeper effects – more likely to show poorer adjustment – more likely to have academic and behavioral problems – overall adjustment affected by social maturity, gender, temperament, custody situation
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demandingness
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what parent is expecting from child in terms of behavior, social interactions, temperament, etc.
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acceptance
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level of warmth related to good mental health
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authoritative
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parenting style that encourages children to be independent while placing limits and controls on actions – high demandingness and high acceptance
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authoritarian
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parenting style in which parents are restrictive and demand high levels of obedience and respect – high demandingness and low acceptance
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indulgent
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parenting style in which parents are highly involved but place few demands or controls on the child – low demandingness and high acceptance
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neglectful
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parenting style in which parents are uninvolved in child’s life – low demandingness and low acceptance
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authoritative
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– friendly to children – easy temperament, secure attachment – cooperative with adults – purposive (goal directed) – responsible – creative and curious – socially skilled – more successful in school
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authoritarian
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– anxious in social situations – less socially adept – dependent – passive – less intellectually curious – less self-assured
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indulgent
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– children less emotionally mature – low on purposiveness – more irresponsible – conforming to peers – not achievement oriented
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neglectful
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– socially incompetent – impulsive, low self regulation – disobedient – delinquent – criminal activities – moody – not achievement oriented
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parent-adolescent relationships
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– conflict when adolescents push for autonomy, gradual release of control is best – gender and culture affect seeking and granting autonomy
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reciprocal socialization
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socialization that is bidirectional in that children socialize parents such as parents socialize children (transactional)
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advantages to having children early
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– more physical energy – mother likely to have fewer medical issues with pregnancy – parents less likely to build up expectations
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advantages to having children later
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– parents consider goals – more mature parents, – parents better established in career
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stepfamilies
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– children usually have better relationship with custodial parents – more adjustment problems from divorced families – adolescence is difficult time for adjustment demands
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effects of corporal punishment
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– parent is out-of-control role model – instills fear, rage, and avoidance in child – shows/tells child what not to do – punishment can be abusive
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coparenting
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– poor cooperation in parenting is not good for the child
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types of child abuse
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– physical abuse – child neglect – sexual abuse – emotional abuse
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context of abuse
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a combination of factors are likely to contribute to child maltreatment such as culture, neighborhood, and family
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Lansford
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– boys were more frequently punished corporally than were girls – mothers used corporal punishment more frequently than the father – significant differences across countries
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developmental consequences
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– emotional and relational attachment problems – personality problems and risk of suicide – aggressive behaviors and substance abuse use/abuse
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autonomy and attachment
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gaining autonomy and control over one’s behavior in adolescence acquired through appropriate adult reactions to the adolescents desire for independence
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causes of conflict
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– cleaning room – getting home at a certain time – phone time caused by pubertal changes, social changes, independence
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improve
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relationships with parents generally——. – grow closer psychologically – share more – some emerging adult decisions may trouble parents – advantages and disadvantages for living in parents home
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negative effects of working parents
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– long hours, stressful, are more likely to be irritable at home and engage in less effective parenting
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sibling relationships
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– can be positive or negative – can provide emotional support – know each other well – variability in relationships
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birth order
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– 1st child is intelligent, achieving – later child is more rebellious and liberal
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adult sibling relationships
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mostly close, provides emotional support, relationship persists overtime

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