Chapter 14 Biochemistry Flashcard

Glycolysis is the name given to a metabolic pathway occurring in many different cell types. It consists of 11 enzymatic steps that convert glucose to lactic acid. Glycolysis is an example of:

A) aerobic metabolism.
B) anabolic metabolism.
C) a net reductive process.
D) fermentation.
E) oxidative phosphorylation.
F) catabolic metabolism

D) fermentation
& F) catabolic metabolism
The anaerobic conversion of 1 mol of glucose to 2 mol of lactate by fermentation is accompanied by a net gain of:

A) 1 mol of ATP.
B) 1 mol of NADH.
C) 2 mol of ATP.
D) 2 mol of NADH.
E) none of the above.

C) 2 mol of ATP.
During strenuous exercise, the NADH formed in the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction in skeletal muscle must be reoxidized to NAD+ if glycolysis is to continue. The most important reaction involved in the reoxidation of NADH is:

A) dihydroxyacetone phosphate → glycerol 3-phosphate
B) glucose 6-phosphate → fructose 6-phosphate
C) isocitrate → α-ketoglutarate
D) oxaloacetate → malate
E) pyruvate → lactate

E) pyruvate → lactate
The conversion of 1 mol of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to 2 mol of pyruvate by the glycolytic pathway results in a net formation of:

A) 1 mol of NAD+ and 2 mol of ATP.
B) 1 mol of NADH and 1 mol of ATP.
C) 2 mol of NAD+ and 4 mol of ATP.
D) 2 mol of NADH and 2 mol of ATP.
E) 2 mol of NADH and 4 mol of ATP.

E) 2 mol of NADH and 4 mol of ATP.
Which of the following statements is not true concerning glycolysis in anaerobic muscle?

A) Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase is one of the enzymes of the pathway.
B) It is an endergonic process.
C) It results in net synthesis of ATP.
D) It results in synthesis of NADH.
E) Its rate is slowed by a high [ATP]/[ADP] ratio.

B) it is an endergonic process.
When a muscle is stimulated to contract aerobically, less lactic acid is formed than when it contracts anaerobically because:

A) glycolysis does not occur to significant extent under aerobic conditions.
B) muscle is metabolically less active under aerobic than anaerobic conditions.
C) the lactic acid generated is rapidly incorporated into lipids under aerobic conditions.
D) under aerobic conditions in muscle, the major energy-yielding pathway is the pentose phosphate pathway, which does not produce lactate.
E) under aerobic conditions most of the pyruvate generated as a result of glycolysis is oxidized by the citric acid cycle rather than reduced to lactate.

E) under aerobic conditions most of the pyruvate generated as a result of glycolysis is oxidized by the citric acid cycle rather than reduced to lactate.
Glycolysis in the erythrocyte produces pyruvate that is further metabolized to:

A) CO2.
B) ethanol.
C) glucose.
D) hemoglobin.
E) lactate.

E) lactate.
When a mixture of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate is incubated with the enzyme phosphohexose isomerase, the final mixture contains twice as much glucose 6-phosphate as fructose 6-phosphate. Which one of the following statements is most nearly correct, when applied to the reaction below (R = 8.315 J/mol·K and T = 298 K)?

Glucose 6-phosphate ↔ fructose 6-phosphate

A) ΔG’° is +1.7 kJ/mol.
B) ΔG’° is -1.7 kJ/mol.
C) ΔG’° is incalculably large and negative.
D) ΔG’° is incalculably large and positive.
E) ΔG’° is zero.

A) ΔG’° is +1.7 kJ/mol.
In glycolysis, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is converted to two products with a standard free-energy change (ΔG’°) of 23.8 kJ/mol. Under what conditions (encountered in a normal cell) will the free-energy change (ΔG) be negative, enabling the reaction to proceed to the right?

A) If the concentrations of the two products are high relative to that of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.
B) The reaction will not go to the right spontaneously under any conditions because the ΔG’° is positive.
C) Under standard conditions, enough energy is released to drive the reaction to the right.
D) When there is a high concentration of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate relative to the concentration of products.
E) When there is a high concentration of products relative to the concentration of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.

D) When there is a high concentration of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate relative to the concentration of products.
Which of these cofactors participates directly in most of the oxidation-reduction reactions in the fermentation of glucose to lactate?

A) ADP
B) ATP
C) FAD/FADH2
D) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
E) NAD+/NADH

E) NAD+/NADH
In comparison with the resting state, actively contracting human muscle tissue has a:

A) higher concentration of ATP.
B) higher rate of lactate formation.
C) lower consumption of glucose.
D) lower rate of consumption of oxygen
E) lower ratio of NADH to NAD+.

B) higher rate of lactate formation.
The steps of glycolysis between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate involve all of the following except:

A) ATP synthesis.
B) catalysis by phosphoglycerate kinase.
C) oxidation of NADH to NAD+.
D) the formation of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate.
E) utilization of Pi.
The steps of glycolysis between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate involve all of the following except:

A) ATP synthesis.
B) catalysis by phosphoglycerate kinase.
C) oxidation of NADH to NAD+.
D) the formation of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate.
E) utilization of Pi.

C) oxidation of NADH to NAD+.
The first reaction in glycolysis that results in the formation of an energy-rich compound (i.e., a compound whose hydrolysis has a highly negative ΔG’°) is catalyzed by:

A) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
B) hexokinase.
C) phosphofructokinase-1.
D) phosphoglycerate kinase.
E) triose phosphate isomerase.

A) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
Which of the following is a cofactor in the reaction catalyzed by glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase?

A) ATP
B) Cu2+
C) heme
D) NAD+
E) NADP+

D) NAD+
Inorganic fluoride inhibits enolase. In an anaerobic system that is metabolizing glucose as a substrate, which of the following compounds would you expect to increase in concentration following the addition of fluoride?

A) 2-phosphoglycerate
B) Glucose
C) Glyoxylate
D) Phosphoenolpyruvate
E) Pyruvate

A) 2-phosphoglycerate
Glycogen is converted to monosaccharide units by:

A) glucokinase.
B) glucose-6-phosphatase
C) glycogen phosphorylase.
D) glycogen synthase.
E) glycogenase.

C) glycogen phosphorylase.
Which of the following statements is incorrect?

A) Aerobically, oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate forms acetate that enters the citric acid cycle.
B) In anaerobic muscle, pyruvate is converted to lactate.
C) In yeast growing anaerobically, pyruvate is converted to ethanol.
D) Reduction of pyruvate to lactate regenerates a cofactor essential for glycolysis.
E) Under anaerobic conditions pyruvate does not form because glycolysis does not occur.

E) Under anaerobic conditions pyruvate does not form because glycolysis does not occur.
The ultimate electron acceptor in the fermentation of glucose to ethanol is:

A) acetaldehyde.
B) acetate.
C) ethanol.
D) NAD+.
E) pyruvate.

A) acetaldehyde.
In the alcoholic fermentation of glucose by yeast, thiamine pyrophosphate is a coenzyme required by:

A) aldolase.
B) hexokinase.
C) lactate dehydrogenase.
D) pyruvate decarboxylase.
E) transaldolase.

D) pyruvate decarboxylase.
Which of the following compounds cannot serve as the starting material for the synthesis of glucose via gluconeogenesis?

A) acetate
B) glycerol
C) lactate
D) oxaloacetate
E) α-ketoglutarate

A) acetate
An enzyme used in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is:

A) 3-phosphoglycerate kinase.
B) glucose 6-phosphatase.
C) hexokinase.
D) phosphofructokinase-1.
E) pyruvate kinase.

A) 3-phosphoglycerate kinase.
Which one of the following statements about gluconeogenesis is false?

A) For starting materials, it can use carbon skeletons derived from certain amino acids.
B) It consists entirely of the reactions of glycolysis, operating in the reverse direction.
C) It employs the enzyme glucose 6-phosphatase.
D) It is one of the ways that mammals maintain normal blood glucose levels between meals.
E) It requires metabolic energy (ATP or GTP).

B) It consists entirely of the reactions of glycolysis, operating in the reverse direction.
All of the following enzymes involved in the flow of carbon from glucose to lactate (glycolysis) are also involved in the reversal of this flow (gluconeogenesis) except:

A) 3-phosphoglycerate kinase.
B) aldolase.
C) enolase.
D) phosphofructokinase-1.
E) phosphoglucoisomerase.

D) phosphofructokinase-1.
In humans, gluconeogenesis:

A) can result in the conversion of protein into blood glucose.
B) helps to reduce blood glucose after a carbohydrate-rich meal.
C) is activated by the hormone insulin
D) is essential in the conversion of fatty acids to glucose.
E) requires the enzyme hexokinase.

A) can result in the conversion of protein into blood glucose.
Which of the following substrates cannot contribute to net gluconeogenesis in mammalian liver?

A) alanine
B) glutamate
C) palmitate
D) pyruvate
E) α-ketoglutarate

C) palmitate
Which of the following statements about the pentose phosphate pathway is correct?

A) It generates 36 mol of ATP per mole of glucose consumed.
B) It generates 6 moles of CO2 for each mole of glucose consumed
C) It is a reductive pathway; it consumes NADH.
D) It is present in plants, but not in animals.
E) It provides precursors for the synthesis of nucleotides

E) It provides precursors for the synthesis of nucleotides.
The main function of the pentose phosphate pathway is to:

A) give the cell an alternative pathway should glycolysis fail.
B) provide a mechanism for the utilization of the carbon skeletons of excess amino acids.
C) supply energy.
D) supply NADH.
E) supply pentoses and NADPH.

E) supply pentoses and NADPH.
The metabolic function of the pentose phosphate pathway is:

A) act as a source of ADP biosynthesis.
B) generate NADPH and pentoses for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and nucleic acids.
C) participate in oxidation-reduction reactions during the formation of H2O.
D) provide intermediates for the citric acid cycle.
E) synthesize phosphorus pentoxide.

B) generate NADPH and pentoses for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and nucleic acids.
Which of the following statements about the pentose phosphate pathway is incorrect?

A) It generates CO2 from C-1 of glucose.
B) It involves the conversion of an aldohexose to an aldopentose.
C) It is prominant in lactating mammary gland.
D) It is principally directed toward the generation of NADPH.
E) It requires the participation of molecular oxygen.

E) It requires the participation of molecular oxygen.
Which of the following enzymes acts in the pentose phosphate pathway?

A) 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase
B) Aldolase
C) Glycogen phosphorylase
D) Phosphofructokinase-1
E) Pyruvate kinase

A) 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase
The oxidation of 3 mol of glucose by the pentose phosphate pathway may result in the production of:

A) 2 mol of pentose, 4 mol of NADPH, and 8 mol of CO2.
B) 3 mol of pentose, 4 mol of NADPH, and 3 mol of CO2.
C) 3 mol of pentose, 6 mol of NADPH, and 3 mol of CO2.
D) 4 mol of pentose, 3 mol of NADPH, and 3 mol of CO2.
E) 4 mol of pentose, 6 mol of NADPH, and 6 mol of CO2.

C) 3 mol of pentose, 6 mol of NADPH, and 3 mol of CO2.

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