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Chapter 13- Therapy Essay

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Pinel, Dix
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Reformers, ______ and ______ pushed for gentler, more humane treatments and for the construction of mental hospitals
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psychotherapy, biomedical therapy
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Today’s therapies can be classified into two main categories:
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psychotherapy
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treatment involving psychological techniques consisting of interactions between trained therapists and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or acheive personal growth
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biomedical therapy
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prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person’s physiology
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eclectic approach
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Some therapists combine techniques. Half of all psychotherapists describe themselves as taking the ______
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psychoanalysis, psychodynamic therapy
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The psychological therapies are _____ and _____
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Psychoanalytic theory
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_________ presumes that healthier, less anxious living becomes possible when people release the energy they had previously devoted to id-ego-superego
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psychoanalysis
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______ is historical reconstruction. It emphasizes the formative power of childhood experiences and their ability to mold the adult.
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hypnosis
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After Freud discarded ______ as an unreliable excavator for psychoanalysis, Freud turned to free association.
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resistance
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in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
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interpretation
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in psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight
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transference
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in psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
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psychodynamic therapy
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a freud-influenced perspective that sees behavior, thinking, and emotions in terms of unconscious motives
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psychoanalysis
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Relatively few US therapists now offer _______. It’s underlying theory is not supported by scientific research
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psychoanalysis
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In _____, analyst’s interpretations cannot be proven or disproven. It often takes several years of several expensive sessions each week
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psychodynamic
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Some of the issues with psychoanalysis have been addressed in the contemporary _________ perspective.
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psychodynamic therapy
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a Freud-influenced perspective that sees behavior, thinking, and emotions in terms of unconscious motives
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psychodynamic
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________ therapy does not talk about id, ego, and superego. Instead, it tries to help people understand their current symptoms by focusing on themes across important relationships, including childhood experiences and the therapist relationship.
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face-to-face
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Psychodynamic therapy differs from psychoanalysis in that meetings are ______ instead of out of the therapist’s line of vision, and occur once or twice a week for weeks or months as opposed to multiple times a week for years.
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client-centered therapy
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a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist used techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to promote clients’ growth (also called person-centered therapy)
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active listening
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empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers’ client-centered therapy
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psychodynamic
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Therapist Shapiro noted that with patients estranged from themselves, _______ therapists are in a position to introduce them to themselves.
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humanistic
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The __________ perspective has emphasized people’s perspective for self-fulfillment.
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Humanistic
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__________ therapists aim to boost people’s self fulfillment by helping them grown in self-awareness and self-acceptance
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psychoanalytic, humanistic
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_______ and _______ therapies both attempt to try to reduce the conflicts that interfere with natural development and growth.
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Humanistic
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Promoting the growth in areas of self-awareness and self-fulfillment is the focus of _______ therapy, not curing illness. Thus, those in therapy are called “clients” or “persons” not “patients”
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humanistic
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In ______ therapy the path to growth is taking immediate responsibility for one’s feelings and actions, rather than uncovering possible hidden causes
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humanistic
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In ______ therapy, conscious thoughts are more important than the unconscious
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humanistic
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In ______ therapy, the present and future are more important than the past. The goal is to explore feelings as they occur, rather than achieving insights into the childhood origins of the feelings.
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client-centered therapy
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Carl Roger developed the ________ which is a humanistic therapy in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to promote clients’ growth.
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unconditional positive regard
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a caring, accepting, nonjudgemental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients develop self-awareness and self-acceptance
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behavior therapy
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therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behavior
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summarize, invite clarification, reflect feelings
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Three steps to listen actively, such as Carl Rogers:
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behavior therapists
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Rather than searching beneath the surface for inner causes of problems, ______ assume that problem behaviors are the problem. They see phobias or sexual disorders, for example, as learned behaviors, and they think they can be replaced with useful behaviors learned through classical or operant conditioning
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Mowrer
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Learning theorist _______ thought that, like various behaviors and emotions can be conditioned, so can maladaptive symptoms. He developed a successful conditioning therapy for chronic bed-wetters using a liquid sensitive pad connected to an alarm, waking the child when moisture triggers the alarm. WIth sufficient repetition, the association of urinary relaxation with waking stops the bed-wetting. This treatment has been successful in 3 out of 4 cases.
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counterconditioning
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a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies or aversive conditioning
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exposure therapies
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behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid
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systematic desensitization
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a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing, anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias
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virtual reality exposure therapy
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an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
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aversive conditioning
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a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
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Jones, countered
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Behavioral therapist _____ worked with 3 year old Peter to rid his fear of rabbits by associating the fear-evoking rabbit with a pleasurable, relaxed response associated with eating. As Peter begins his midafternoon snack, she introduces a caged rabbit on the other side of a huge room. Peter hardly notices. On succeeding days, she gradually moves the rabbit closer and closer. WIthin two months, Peter is holding the rabbit in his lap, even stroking his ears. His fear of furry animals has been _______ by a relaxed state that cannot coexist with fear.
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Wolpe
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______ refined Jones’ counterconditioning techniques into the exposure therapies used today.
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active listening
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To Rogers, in humanistic therapy, hearing was ________
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exposure therapies
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______ try to change people’s reactions by repeatedly exposing them to stimuli that trigger unwanted reactions
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systematic desensitization
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You cannot be anxious and relaxed at the same time. Therefore, if you can repeatedly relax when facing anxiety provoking stimuli, you can gradually eliminate your anxiety. This is called ________
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progressive relaxation
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_______ is used in systematic desensitization. You learn to relax one muscle group after another, until you have achieved a comfortable, complete relaxation
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should, should not
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Exposure therapies help you learn what you ____ do. Aversive conditioning helps you to learn what you ____ do.
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63, 33
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In one classic study, 685 patients with alcohol dependence completed an aversion therapy program at a hospital. Over the next year, they returned for several booster treatments in which alcohol was paired with sickness. At the end of that year, ___& were still successfully abstaining. But, after 3 years, only ___% had remained abstinent.
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true
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The problem with aversive conditioning is that people are able to isolate the aversive conditioning situation from all other situations, limiting the treatment’s effectiveness. Therefore, therapists can use aversive therapy in combination with other treatments.
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behavior modification
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Knowing that the basic concept in operant conditioning is that our behaviors are influenced by their consequences, behavior therapists can practice ________ to reinforce behavior they see as desirable and fail to reinforce or sometimes punish behaviors they see undesirable
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token economy
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an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for privileges or treats
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cognitive therapy
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therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
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cognitive-behavioral therapy
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a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
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cognitive
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______ therapies assume that our thinking colors our feelings
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Beck, cognitive therapy
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Cognitive therapist ______’s original training was in Freudian techniques, including dream analysis. he noticed that depressed people often reported dreams with negative themes of loss, rejection, and abandonment. These thoughts extended into their waking thoughts, even into therapy. He then developed _______, which is gentle questioning that seeks to reveal irrational thinking and the persuade people to remove the dark glasses through which they view life.
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true
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Experiments show that training people to talk back to negative thoughts can be effective
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Ellis, cognitive-behavioral therapy
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_____ stated that the trouble with most therapy is that it helps you feel better, but you don’t get better. You need to back it up with action. This integrated approach seeks to change the way people think and act. This is known as _________
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operant conditioning
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Token economies are an application of ________
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family therapy
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therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members
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2/3, time, 24
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Eysenck noted in a study of those treated with psychotherapy for disorders not involving hallucinations or delusions, ____ of those improved markedly. It was also seen that those untreated, such as those on a waiting list, saw similar improvement. ____ is a great healer. Critics did not like that the results were a compilation of only ______ studies
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80
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When researchers used statistical methods to combine the results of 475 investigations, it was found that the average therapy client ends up better off ____ % of the time
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Behavioral conditioning
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________ therapies have especially good results for specific behavior problems such as bed-wetting, phobias, compulsions, marital problems, and marital disorders
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cognitive
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_______ therapy is successful in coping with anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression
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energy therapies
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_____ propose to manipulate people’s invisible energy fields
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recovered-memory
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_____ therapies aim to unearth “repressed memories” of early childhood abuse
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rebirthing therapies
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______ engage people in reenacting the supposed trauma of their birth
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facilitated communication
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______ has an assistant touch the typing hand of a child with autism
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crisis debriefing
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_______ forces people to rehearse and process their recent traumatic experiences
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hope, perspective, relationship
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Psychotherapies offer: 1. _____ for demoralized people 2. a new ________ on oneself and the world 3. an empathetic and caring ______
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clients, clinicians
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The most enthusiastic view of psychotherapy’s effectiveness comes from reports of ____ and _____
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no one type of
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Studies show that ____ therapy is most effective overall
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therapeutic alliance
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the emotional bond between therapist and client
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individualism
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In North America, Europe, and Australia, many therapists reflect the culture’s ______
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biomedical therapies
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___________ are most often used in more serious disorders. This form of treatment changes the brain’s functioning by altering its chemistry with drugs, or affecting its circuitry with electrical stimulation, magnetic impulses, or psychosurgery
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drug
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The most widely used biomedical therapies are ______ therapies
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antipsychotic drugs
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drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorders
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antianxiety drugs
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drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
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antidepressant drugs
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drugs used to treat depression and some anxiety disorders. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters
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13, 27
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In the decade between 1996 and 2005, the number of American prescribed antidepressant drugs doubled from ___ to ___ million
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true
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Almost any new treatment including drug therapy, id greeted by an initial wave of enthusiasm as many people apparently improve. but that enthusiasm often diminishes on closer examination. To get more accurate representations, double blind-studies are done. In double-blind studies, several types of drugs have proven useful in treating psychological disorders
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chlorpromazine
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Schizophrenics with positive symptoms often respond well to _______, a drug that reduces patients’ overreactions to irrelevant stimuli
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antipsychotic
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People with negative schizophrenic symptoms often do not respond well to _______ drugs. Newer generation drugs such as risperidone, olanzapine, and clozapine sometimes enable awakening in individuals
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antipsychotic drugs, dopamine
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_______ mimic certain neurotransmitters. Some block the activity of dopamine by occupying its receptor site. This finding reinforces the idea that an overactive _____ system contributes to schizophrenia
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L-dopa, schizophrenia
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____ is a drug sometimes given to people with Parkinson’s (a disease in which a person produces too little dopamine). It raises dopamine levels, but also causes the side effect of _____
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antipsychotic
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_____ drugs have side effects such as sluggishness, tremors, and twitches similar to those of Parkinson’s disease
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antipsychotic drugs
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Long-term use or ______ can a produce tardive dyskinesia which causes involuntary movements of facial muscles, tongue, and limbs
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antipsychotic drugs
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______ do not seem to increase risk of death, but they do increase the risk of diabetes and obesity
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antianxiety drugs
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______ such as Xanax or Ativan depress central nervous system activity. These drugs are often used in combination with psychological therapy. They calm anxiety as the person learns to cope with frightening situations and fear-triggering stimulation
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antianxiety
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One criticism of _______ drugs is that they may reduce symptoms without resolving underlying problems
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antidepressant drugs, arousal, mood
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________ work by increasing the availability of norepinephrine and serotonin. These neurotransmitters elevate ____ and ____ and are scarce during depression. They are sometimes used to treat anxiety disorders such as OCD
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Prozac
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_____ partially blocks the normal reuptake of excess serotonin from the synapses. One possible side effect is diminished sexual desire
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Paxil, Zoloft, brain cells
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Prozac, ____, and _____ are called selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors because they slow the synaptic vaccuuming up of serotonin. They can begin to influence neurotransmission within hours Full psychological effect may take four weeks, possible because they drugs promote birth of new ______
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depakote
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_____ is a mood stabilizing drug originally used to treat epilepsy. It was also found effective in controlling manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder
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lithium
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____, the simple salt, effectively levels the emotional highs and lows of bipolar disorder
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Cade
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Australian physician _____ discovered the effects of lithium when e administered it to patients with extreme mania. His treatment was misguided. He felt that lithium helped calm excitable guinea pigs, but actually it made them sick. A week after taking lithium, his patient was better, though
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7, 10
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About ____ out of ____ people with bipolar disorder benefit from a long term daily dose of lithium
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7/10
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The risk of suicide for those with bipolar taking lithium is about_____ of those not taking lithium
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electroconvulsive therapy
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a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
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80
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After 3 sessions each week for two to four weeks, ___ % or more of those receiving ECT improve markedly
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true
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Modern ECT treatment causes less memory disruption than earlier versions did
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true
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ECT seems to calm the neural centers and boost the production of new brain cells
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4
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____ in 10 ECT patients relapse into depression within 6 months
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vagus nerve stimulation
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______ stimulates a nerve in the neck via an electrical device implanted in the chest. The device periodically sends signals to the brain’s mood-related limbic system
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deep-brain stimulation
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an experimental procedure that is administered by a pacemaker that controls implanted electrodes. The stimulation inhibits brain activity in a brain area that feeds negative emotions and thinking. With those who have not found relief with ECT, this is an alternative
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repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
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the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
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psychosurgery
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surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
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lobotomy
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a psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
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resilience
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the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma
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repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
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Unlike deep-brain stimulation, the magnetic energy of ____________ penetrates only the brain’s surface. Unlike the ECT, rTMS procedure produces no seizures, memory loss, or other side effects. Wide-awake patients receive treatments daily for two to four weeks
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rTMS
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Initial studies have found modest positive benefits of _____
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left frontal lobe
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One possible explanation of the success of rTMS is that its stimulation energizes the brain’s __________ which is relatively inactive during depression
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psychosurgery
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______ is the most drastic and least-used biomedical intervention for changing thoughts and behaviors
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Moniz
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In the 1930s, Portuguese physician _____ developed what would later become the best-known psychosurgical operation: the lobotomy
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frontal lobes
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To calm uncontrollably emotional and violent patients, Moniz cut the nerves connecting the _______ with the emotion controlling centers of the inner brain
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antianxiety
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The ______ drugs can cause death if they are taken in combination with alcohol because both alcohol and these drugs depress central nervous system activity
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preventive mental health
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_______ seeks to identify and alleviate conditions that put people at risk for psychological disorders