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CHAPTER 13 – PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES (Terms)

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Therapies directed at changing disordered behavior are referred to as __________. a) action therapies b) insight therapies c) biomedical therapies d) relationship therapies
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A) Action therapy emphasizes changing behavior, whereas insight therapy emphasizes understanding one’s motives and actions.
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Which of the following is the best example of biomedical therapy? a) use of antidepressants to treat depression b) use of insight therapy for social phobia c) psychoanalysis to help treat an anxiety disorder d) flooding treatment for an individual with obsessive-compulsive disorder
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A) Any medical treatment that is directed at changing the physiological functioning of an individual is classified as a biomedical therapy. All of the remaining choices are examples of types of psychotherapy treatments.
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Approximately how long ago were the first efforts made to treat the mentally ill with kindness, rather than subjecting them to harsh physical treatment? a) 20 years ago b) 100 years ago c) 200 years ago d) 500 years ago
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C) In 1793 Philippe Pinel unchained the mentally ill inmates at an asylum in Paris, France, and began the movement of humane treatment for the mentally ill.
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Psychoanalysis was a therapy technique designed by a) Alfred Adler. b) Carl Rogers. c) Fritz Perls. d) Sigmund Freud.
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D) Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis, while Rogers developed person-centered therapy.
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Freud believed one of the indications that he was close to discovering an unconscious conflict was when a patient became unwilling to talk about a topic. He referred to this response in the patient as a) transference. b) latent content. c) dream analysis. d) resistance.
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D) Resistance occurred when a patient became unwilling to discuss a concept. In transference the patient would transfer positive and negative feelings for an authority figure in their past onto the therapist.
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Which of the following individuals would be least likely to benefit from psychoanalysis? a) Mary, who has a somatoform disorder b) Kaleem, who suffers from a severe psychotic disorder c) Pasha, who has panic attacks d) Lou, who suffers from anxiety
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B) People with severe psychotic disorders are less likely to benefit from psychoanalysis than are people who suffer from somatoform or anxiety disorders.
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The modern psychoanalyst provides more guidance to the patient, asks questions, suggests helpful behaviors, and gives opinions and interpretations. This type of role for the therapist is described as a _____________ approach. a) free association b) directive c) biomedical d) nondirective
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B) A directive approach involves asking questions and suggesting behaviors. The more traditional psychoanalyst typically takes a more nondirective approach in which the therapist remains neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client.
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What did Carl Rogers view as a cause of most personal problems and unhappiness? a) reinforcement of maladaptive behavior patterns b) unrealistic modes of thought employed by many people c) mismatch between an individual’s ideal self and real self d) unresolved unconscious conflicts occur between the id and superego
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C) Rogers believed the closer the match between a person’s ideal and real selves, the happier the person. It was Freud, not Rogers, who viewed unresolved unconscious conflicts between the id and superego as the cause of personal problems.
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Which of the following was NOT one of the four key elements Rogers viewed as necessary for a successful person-therapist relationship? a) reflection b) unconditional positive regard c) authenticity d) resistance
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D) Rogers felt a therapist must provide the four elements of reflection, unconditional positive regard, empathy, and authenticity in order for successful treatment.
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What is a major goal of the Gestalt therapist? a) to facilitate transference b) to eliminate the client’s undesirable behaviors c) to provide unconditional positive regard d) to help clients become more aware of their own feelings
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D) The major goal of Gestalt therapists is to help clients become more aware of their feelings. Providing unconditional positive regard is the primary goal of person- centered therapy, not Gestalt.
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Which of the following is a limitation of humanistic therapy? a) Clients do not need to be verbal. b) There is not enough empirical research to support its basic ideas. c) It cannot be used in a variety of contexts. d) The therapist runs the risk of having his or her words misinterpreted by the client.
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B) The humanistic therapist does not run the risk of having his or her words misinterpreted by the client because the therapist uses reflection as the main means of communication. However, unfortunately at this point there is not enough empirical evidence to support or refute the basic ideas of humanistic therapy.
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In the aversion therapy technique known as rapid smoking the client takes a puff on a cigarette every five or six seconds so that the nicotine now produces unpleasant responses such as nausea and dizziness, so that eventually the cigarette itself produces a sensation of nausea in the client. In the terms of classical conditioning, the cigarette functions as the _____ and the nicotine is the _____. a) UCS; CS b) CS; UCS c) CR; UCS d) CS; UCR
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B) Both the cigarette and nicotine are stimuli, so choices c and d can be immediately eliminated. In rapid smoking, the cigarette serves as the conditioned stimulus and the nicotine serves as the unconditioned stimulus.
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Which method of treating phobias involves progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared object? a) extinction b) punishment c) token economy d) systematic desensitization
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D) Systematic desensitization involves progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared object, while extinction involves the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a particular response.
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In a token economy, what role does the token play in shaping behavior? A) The tokens are used as punishment to decrease the maladaptive behavior. B) The tokens are used to reinforce the desired behavior. c) The token is the actual behavior itself. d) The token represents the written contract between the client and therapist.
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B) In a token economy, the tokens are the reinforcers used to shape and strengthen the desired behaviors.
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What is an advantage of using operant conditioning in treating undesirable behaviors? a) The results are usually quickly obtained. b) Clients can get an understanding of the underlying cause of the problem. c) Unconscious urges are revealed. d) Clients can change distorted thought patterns that affect behavior.
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A) Operant conditioning is not concerned with the cause of the problems, rather it is concerned with changing behavior. However, operant conditioning does provide rapid change in behavior in comparison to other therapies.
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Which of the following is one of the criticisms of behavior therapy? a) It focuses on the underlying cause of behavior and not the symptoms. b) Therapy typically lasts for several years and is very expensive. c) It focuses too much on the past. d) It only relieves some symptoms of schizophrenia but does not treat the overall disorder.
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D) Behavior therapy may help relieve some symptoms but does not treat the overall disorder of schizophrenia.
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What is the goal of cognitive therapy? a) to help clients gain insight into their unconscious b) to help people change their ways of thinking c) to change a person’s behavior through shaping and reinforcement d) to provide unconditional positive regard for the client
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B) Cognitive therapy focuses on changing an individual’s cognitions or thought processes.
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Which of these clients is the most likely candidate for Aaron Beck’s form of cognitive therapy? a) Albert, who suffers from mania b) Barbara, who suffers from depression c) Robert, who suffers from schizophrenia d) Virginia, who has been diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder
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B) Beck’s cognitive therapy is especially effective in treating distortions related to depression.
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Which approach assumes that disorders come from illogical, irrational cognitions and that changing the thinking patterns to more rational, logical ones will relieve the symptoms of the disorder? a) cognitive-behavioral b) person-centered c) psychoanalytic d) Gestalt
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A) Cognitive behavioral therapists are concerned with helping clients change their irrational thoughts to more rational and positive thoughts. A person-centered therapist believes disorders come from a mismatch between the ideal self and the real self and a lack of unconditional positive regard.
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According to Albert Ellis, we become unhappy and depressed about events because of _______. a) our behaviors b) our irrational beliefs c) the events that happen to us d) other people’s irrational beliefs
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B) Ellis believes irrational beliefs cause dissatisfaction and depression.
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Which of the following is the best example of an irrational belief that a therapist using rational- emotive behavioral therapy would challenge you to change? a) It is disappointing when things don’t go my way. b) If I fail this test, it will hurt my grade in this class but I will try to make it up on the next exam. c) There must be something wrong with Bob since he turned down my invitation for a date. d) Everyone should love and approve of me and if they don’t, there must be something wrong with me.
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D) Irrational beliefs typically have one thing in common; they are all-or-none types of statements.
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Which of the following is an advantage of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies? a) Clients do not need to be verbal. b) They treat the underlying cause of the problem. c) They are less expensive and short-term than typical insight therapies d) The therapist decides which of the client’s beliefs are rational and which are irrational.
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C) Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies are relatively inexpensive and are short-term.
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An advantage to group therapy is that groups a) are a source of social support. b) allow countertransference to occur. c) provide unconditional approval to the group members. d) allow antisocial individuals to dominate group discussions.
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A) Group therapy provides social support for people who have similar problems.
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In family therapy, the therapist would most likely a) focus on one individual who has been identified as the source of the problem. b) have each family member come in for therapy individually. c) provide unconditional approval to all the family members. d) focus on the entire family system to understand the problem.
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D) Family therapy focuses on the entire family as a part of the problem.
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Which of the following is NOT true about self-help support groups? a) Self-help groups do not have leaders. b) Currently there are only a limited number of self-help groups operating in the United States. c) Self-help groups are typically not directed by a licensed therapist. d) Self-help groups are usually free to attend.
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B) Currently there are an extremely large number of self-help groups in the United States.
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Most psychological professionals today take a(n) ______ view of psychotherapy. a) group treatment b) humanistic c) eclectic d) behavioral
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C) An eclectic view is one that combines a number of different approaches to best fit the needs of the client.
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The most important aspect of a successful psychotherapy treatment is a) the length of the session. b) the specific approach of the therapist. c) the relationship between the client and the therapist. d) the severity of the disorder.
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C) A number of studies have found that the client-therapist relationship (also called the therapeutic alliance) is the best predictor of successful treatment.
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Studies that have examined cultural and ethnic factors in the therapeutic relationship have found that. a) members of minority racial or ethnic groups are more likely to continue treatment until the problem has been resolved. b) members of the majority racial or ethnic group usually have lower prevalence rates of disorders. c) members of minority racial or ethnic groups drop out of therapy at a higher rate than members of the majority group. d) members of minority racial or ethnic groups rarely or never seek therapy.
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C) Members of minority groups are much more likely to drop out of therapy when compared to members of majority racial and ethnic groups.
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Which of the following has NOT been found to be a barrier to effective psychotherapy when the cultural background of client and therapist is different? a) language differences b) differing cultural values c) nonverbal communication d) severity of the disorder
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D) The severity of the disorder has not been found to be a cultural barrier for treatment.
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Antipsychotic drugs treat symptoms such as a) hopelessness, sadness, and suicide ideations. b) excessive worry, repetitive thoughts, and compulsive behavior. c) hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior. d) manipulation, lying, and cheating.
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C) Hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behaviors are defined as psychotic behaviors and are treated with antipsychotic drugs. Antidepressant drugs, not antipsychotic drugs, treat feelings of hopelessness, sadness, and suicide ideations.
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In what way is the new class of antidepressants known as the SSRIs an improvement over the older types of antidepressants? a) They work faster. b) They are more effective. c) They target a larger number of different neurotransmitters. d) They have fewer side effects.
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D) The speed of action and effectiveness is similar among the three classes of antidepressants but the main difference is the number of negative side effects. The SSRIs actually target only one neurotransmitter: serotonin.
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For which disorder was electroconvulsive therapy originally developed as a treatment? a) panic b) schizophrenia c) bipolar disorder d) cyclothymia
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B) ECT was originally designed to induce seizures in schizophrenics.
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Which of the following is the appropriate definition of psychosurgery? a) information given to a patient about a surgical procedure before the surgery in order to prevent anxiety b) surgery that is performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders. c) surgery that severs the spinal cord of the patient d) a procedure in which a brief current of electricity is used to trigger a seizure that typically lasts one minute, causing the body to convulse
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B) Severing the spinal cord would lead to the very negative side effect of paralysis of the body. Psychosurgery is performed on brain tissue.