Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders

hallucinations
perceptions experienced in the absence of external stimuli

delusions
fixed but patently false beliefs, such as believing that one thing is being hounded by demons

culture-bound syndrome
psychological disorders found in only one or a few cultures

dhat syndrome
a culture-bound syndrome found in India in which men develop intense fears about losing semen

medical model
a framework for understanding abnormal behavior patterns as symptoms of underlying physical disorders and diseases

biopsychosocial model
an integrative model for explaining abnormal behavior patterns in terms of the interactions of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors

diathesis-stress models
type of biopsychosocial model that relates the development of disorders to the combination of a diathesis, or predisposition, usually genetic in origin, and exposure to stressful events or life circumstances

diathesis
a vulnerability or predisposition to developing a disorder

psychological disorders
abnormal behavior patterns characterized by disturbances in behavior, thinking, perceptions, or emotions that are associated with a significant personal distress or impaired functioning

anxiety disorders
a class of psychological disorders characterized by excessive or inappropriate anxiety reactions

phobias
excessive fears of particular objects or situations

social phobia
excessive fear of social situations

specific phobia
phobic reactions involving specific situations or objects

acrophobia
excessive fear of heights

claustrophobia
excessive fear of enclosed spaces

agoraphobia
irrational fear of being in public places

panic disorder
repeated episodes of sheer terror called panic attacks

generalized anxiety disorder
persistent and generalized anxiety and worry

OCD
repeated occurence of obsessions and/or compulsions

anxiety sensitivity
fear of fear

dissociative disorders
class of psychological disorders involving changes in consciousness, memory, or self identity

somataform disorders
involves physical ailments or complaints that cannot be explained by organic causes

dissociative identity disorder
appearance of multiple personalities in the same individual

conversion disorder
somataform disorder characterized by a change or loss of physical function that cannot be explained by medical causes

hypochondriasis
excessive concern that ones physical complaints are signs of underlying serious illness

secondary gain
reward value of having a psychological or physical symptom

mood disorders
class of psychological disorders involving disturbances in mood states, such as major depression and bipolar disorder

major depressive disorder
most common type of depressive disorder

seasonal affective disorder
recurring pattern of winter depression followed by elevations of mood in spring and summer

dysthymic disorder
mild but chronic depression

bipolar disorder
mood swings from extreme elation to severe depression

manic episodes
periods of mania, usually elevated mood and extreme restlessness

cyclothymic disorder
chronic patter of relatively mild mood swings

learned helplessness model
view that depression results from the perception of a lack of control over ones fate

attributional style
persons characteristic way of explaining outcomes of events in his or her life

depressive attributional style
a charactawistic way of explaining negative events of internal, stable, and global causes

disinhibition effect
removal of normal restraints or inhibitions that serve to keep impulsive behavior in check

schizophrenia
disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions, and behavior

psychotic disorder
characterized by a “break” with reality

thought disorder
breakdown in the logical structure of thought and speech

positive symptoms
symptoms of schizophrenia involving behavioral excesses such as hallucinations and delusions

negative symptoms
Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech.

disorganized type
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by confused behavior and disorganized delusions, among other features

catatonic type
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by bizarre movements, postures, or grimaces

waxy flexibility
feature of catatonic schizophrenia in which people rigidly maintain the body position or posture in which they are placed by others

paranoid type
most common subtype of schizophrenia, characterized by the appearance of delusional thinking accompanied by frequent auditory hallucinations

personality disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

narcissistic personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by a grandiose sense of self

paranoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by extreme suspiciousness or mistrust of others

schizoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by social aloofness and limited range of emotional expression

borderline personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures

antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by amorality and lack of affect

paranoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by extreme suspiciousness or mistrust of others

schizoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by social aloofness and limited range of emotional expression

schizotypal personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by detachment from, and great discomfort in, social relationships; odd perceptions, thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors

antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by amorality and lack of affect

borderline personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures

histrionic personality disorder
excessive emotionality, need for attention

narcissistic personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by a grandiose sense of self

avoidant personality disorder
social inhibitions, feelings of inadequacy

dependent personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by helplessness; excessive need to be taken care of; submissive and clinging behavior; difficulty in making decisions

obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
excessive needs for orderliness and attention to detail

brain abnormalities
common in schizophrenic patients

prefrontal cortex and limbic systems
areas most affected by schizophrenia

antipsychotic drugs
used to quell hallucinations and delusions

causes of schizophrenia
genetic factors, biochemical imbalances, brain abnormalities, psychosocial influences and stress

Van Gogh
artist that suffered from terrible bouts of depression that led to his eventual suicide

suicide
purposefully taking ones own life

causes of mood disorders
psychological factors, biological factors

dissociative amnesia
loss of memory for info about themselves or their life experiences

causes of anxiety disorders
biological factors, psychological factors

types of anxiety disorders
phobias, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, OCD

medical model
biological underpinnings of abnormal behavior

psychodynamic model
unconscious conflicts and motives underlying abnormal behavior; freud

behavioral model
learning experience that shaped development of abnormal behavior

humanistic model
roadblocks that hinder self-awareness and self-acceptance

cognitive model
faulty thinking underlying abnormal behavior

sociocultural model
development of abnormal behavior and relationships between abnormal behavior and ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic level

biopsychosocial model
biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors

clinical disorders
impair functioning or cause distress

personality disorders
excessively rigid, enduring, and maladaptive ways of relating to others

metal retardation
generalized delay or impairment in intellectual and adaptive skills or abilities

general medical conditions
illnesses and other medical conditions that are important of treatment to person’s psychological disorder

psychosocial and environmental problems
problems in person’s social or physical environment that may effect diagnosis, treatment, or outcome of a disorder

global assessment of functioning
overall judgment of a persons level of functioning

multiaxial DSM system
chart showing type of disorder and brief descriptions and examples

humanistic model
roadblocks that hinder self-awareness and self-acceptance

suicide
found in many life stages, is one of the leading causes of death in adolescents

mental retardation
a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound

acrophobia
a morbid fear of great heights

DSM-IV-TR
fourth text-revised edition of the book of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders