Chapter 12 – Texture

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Charles Nessler
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Made the first real breakthrough in 1905 with his heat permanent waving machine.
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Croquingnole
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Method of wrapping hair from the ends to the scalp
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Cold Waves
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Machine-less method. Hair wrapped on perm tools while a waving lotion processed the hair without heat.
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Alkaline Waves
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Currently formulated with thioglycolic acid or its derivatives and ammonia.
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Acid Waves
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Contained a thioglycolic derivative called glycerol monothioglycolate and did not contain ammonia. Heat was added by placing a plastic cap on the clients head and placing under a preheated dryer. The method is called endothermic because heat is absorbed from the surroundings.
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Acid Perm pH
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6.9-7.2
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Alkaline pH
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8.0-9.5
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Spiral Wrap
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Revolutions of hair next to one another create an elongated texture pattern, which is consistent along the lengths of the strand and reflects the shape and diameter of the tools used. Used most often on medium to long hair.
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Overlap Wrap
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Also called Croquignole technique. the hair is rotated/revolved around a tool from he ends of the hair strand up to the base. Produces curls and undulating waves and is also used t achieve base lift and strong end curl. Best suited for short to medium length hair.
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Large Diameter Tools
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Produces large curls, wave formations or body waves.
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Medium Diameter Tools
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Produce texture with a faster rate or speed of activation.
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Small Diameter Tools
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Produce small, firm curls.
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Bookend Technique
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Uses one end paper folded in half horizontally. Generally used to control sections of hair when a shorter tool length is selected or to wrap sections of very short hair.
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Double Paper Technique
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Also called double-flat, incorporates two end papers, one on the top of the strand and one on the bottom. It is the most common end paper technique and allows you maximum control of tapered ends and avoids bunching the ends. Helpful for controlling large sections of hair and for protecting color-treated and fragile hair.
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Single Paper Technique
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More advanced version of the double paper technique. It requires more practice because the only ne paper is used to control the ends of the hair. It is most often used with healthy, competent hair.
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Cushion Technique
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Incorporates several end papers. begins with a double-paper technique and ten additional end papers are positioned on top of the strand as you wrap the perm tool. Provides cushion and support to fragile hair and controls shorter lengths within the hair section. Recommended for chemically treated or highly porous hair to allow even absorption of the processing solutions and is used primarily in alkaline perming to keep the hair sooth and provide for expansions when the hair swells.
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One-Diameter (1x) base
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Size used most frequently in perm design.
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One and a Half Diameter (1 1/2x) base
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Measure one full diameter plus one half.
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Two-Diameter (2x) base
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Measured with two full diameters of the chosen tool.
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On Base Tool Position
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Use a 1x base, project the hair 45 degrees above the center of the base and wrap the tool so it is positioned between the two base partings. Creates the most volume. May not be recommended for alkaline perms.
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Half-Off Base Tool Position
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Most commonly used. Generally a 1x base is used. Project hair 90 degrees from the center of the base. The perm tool will be positioned half on its base and half off its base, directly on the lower parting. Medium base lift and max blending between bases.
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Under-directed Tool Position
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Base size is at least 1 1/2x and the hair is projected at a 90 degree angle from the center of the base. This angle positions the tool in the lower half of the base to achieve moderate base lift. Used in perimeter areas where less volume is desired.
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Off-Base Tool Position
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No curl at the scalp. Hair is held at a 45 degree below the enter of the base while wrapping so that the tool is positioned completely off its base. Is used only where you want a minimal degree of volume or base life and a curl pattern concentrated on the midstrand and ends. Any base size can be used.
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Perm Patterns
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Refers to the way perm tools are arranged around the clients head while wrapping.
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Rectangle Pattern
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9 Block, consists primarily of rectangular sections subdivided into rectangular bases. The basic direction is downward. Generally the most basic perm pattern, can be done on any sculpted form.
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Contour Pattern
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Adapts to the contours or curves of the head. Includes a central rectangle and slight diagonal and horizontal partings at the sides.
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One-Two Bricklay Pattern
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Positions tools in staggered configuration. It is wrapped with an overlap technique and is positioned horizontally or diagonally. Creates consistent curl and helps avoid splits between bases.
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Spiral Bricklay Pattern
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Horizontal rows that are subdivided in a staggered bricklay pattern. Tools positioned vertically within the rectangular bases. Spiral wrapping technique is used to achieve an elongated curl pattern on medium to longer lengths of hair.
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Alternating Oblong Pattern
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Perm tools used in diagonal partings. Creates a strong wave pattern. Can be positioned horizontally, vertically or diagonally.
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Advanced Perm Patterns
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Custom wrapping patterns, position new texture in specific areas or zones of the head.
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Base Perming
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Adding texture only at the base of the hair strand/hair strand closest to the scalp. Ideal for clients who need lift and support but not end curls. Wrapping begins at a desired point along the strand and ends are left free. Controlled as you wrap down to the base.
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Away from the Base Perming
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Adding texture anywhere along the stand except at the base to create contrasting textures.
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Piggyback Perm
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A combination of base perming and away from the base perming. Two or more perm rods are positioned along the length of the hair strand. The perm rods are wrapped in alternate directions. Used to create more than one texture along the strand. Can help to ensure complete saturation of the perm chemicals.
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Compression Bases
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Larger than 2x and the perm tool is positioned within the base. Used to wrap a larger amount of hair on a perm tool in order to create more texture at the ends and less at the base. Less texture and support will be created at the base.
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Woven Bases
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\”Zig-Zag\” bases, used for blending between directional or texture changes. Can be used between bases or between larger sections. Used to blend into areas that are left natural.
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Zonal Patterns
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Partial perms, adding texture in certain areas or zones of the head rather than the full head.
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Freeform Patterns
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Do not use the standard perm patterns and techniques A variety of perm tools
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Perm Solution
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A reducing agent
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Neutralizer
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An oxidizing agent
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Alkaline
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Cold waves. Perm solution chemically breaks or reduces the strong disulfide bonds while the hair is wrapped.
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Acid
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Heat waves. heat, tension and the perm solution break the disulfide bonds.
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Neutralizing
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The main ingredient is hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate and sodium bromate. The pH can range from 2.5-7 depending on the type.
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Porosity
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Refers to the ability of the hair to absorb moisture. liquids or chemicals.
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Elasticity
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The hairs ability to be stretched and return to its original shape.
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Density
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The number of hair follicles per square inch.
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Relaxing
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Loosening or reducing the hair’s existing texture as when straightening curly or tightly curled hair
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Curl Diffusion
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Chemical blow out. Used to loosen or relax tightly curled hair patterns by approximately 50% of their natural shape.
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Virgin Relaxer
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Used on natural untreated hair to straighten the hair up to 85%.
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Retouch Relaxer
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Performed on the new growth only to match the previously relaxed hair.
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Zonal Relaxer
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Performed only in selected areas of the head. Usually performed when the client’s nape area and sides are closely tapered or when the perimeter hairline is frizzy.
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Sodium Hydroxide
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Strong alkaline products that have a pH of 11.5-14 and are designed to straighten tightly curled hair.
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Ammonium Thioglycolate
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pH of 8.5-9.5 is chemical reducing agent that causes the hair to soften and swell. The disulfied bonds break between the two sulfur atoms in the cysteine amino acids.
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Straight Texture
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Round Follicle
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Wavy Texture
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Oval Follicle
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Curly Texture
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Elliptical Follicle
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Tightly Curled Texture
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Elliptical Follicle
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Relaxation test
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Also known as the comb test, allows you to determine if additional smoothing is required.
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Thermal Reconditioning
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Advanced relaxer that results in straight hair by using heat to restructure the bonds in the hair. Designed to straighten hair 100%.
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Curl Reformation
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Designed to change tightly curled hair to curly or wavy hair. Also known as soft curls, reformation curls or double-process perm.

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