Chapter 12 Review Test Answers

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The early medieval church in the west developed a more organized monastic structure under….
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St Benedict
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The organization of the _____ Church was fundamentally strengthened as the pope became the recognized head of the church in the west.
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Roman Catholic
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In an effort to avoid the potential mayhem of the Germanic system of personal revenge or the punishment of crimes, an alternative system arose that made use of a fine called ______
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Wergeld
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Medieval Christian ____ served as centers of learning.
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Monasteries
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Charlemagne’s oversight representatives, the “messengers of The Lord king”, were the _______
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Missi Dominci
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These included the accomplishments of Charlemagne Carolingian
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1) it encompassed much of western and central Europe 2) it depended upon the allegiance of counts who ruled for the monarch in local areas 3) it symbolizes the fusion of Roman, German, and Christian elements which would make up medieval civilization in Europe 4) a palace school was established and the handwritten script was reformed
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______ in medieval Europe included women, many of whom belonged to royal families
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Monasticism
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Who were the Asian people, defeated at the battle of Lechfeld, who became Christians and went on to establish the kingdom of Hungary?
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Magyars
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The incursions of the _____ into other parts of Europe were successful in part because of their ships and had a shallow draft, allowing them to sail far up rivers, raiding and pillaging as they went
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Scandinavian Vikings
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The personal element of feudalism was most symbolized in the relationship involving
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Lords and his subordinates
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The piece if land that provided the feudal vassal’s economic support was the…
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Fief
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Aristocratic medieval women in unusual circumstances, could play a major role, as did….
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Eleanor of Aquitaine
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The development of fief-holding:
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1) was a response by local leaders who gathered military retainers to protect themselves, as the remnants of the imperial government could not adequately defend the state 2) led to the creation of a large number of knights who literally owed their livings to The Lord who granted them a fief 3) led to a 500 year period when warfare was dominated by heavily armed Calvary 4) reflected the high value of land during the centuries during which it was established.
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The ____ revolutionized warfare in the early Middle Ages.
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Stirrup
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______ was supported by the income from a fief of land.
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Vassals
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As a result of the _____ of 1066 King William ordered a census of his new kingdom.
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Norman conquest
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The English King most responsible for establishing the “common law” was ____
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Henry II
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By the end of the 13th century, the institutionalization of the ______ was a system of power sharing between the monarch and groups within the society
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English Parliament
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France’s first parliament, begun under Philip IV, was the….
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Estates General
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The early _____ Kings of France were effective rulers only in the area around Paris
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Capetian
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Philip II Augustus of France
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1) Waged war successfully against the kings of England 2) he regained the provinces of Anjou, Normandy, and Aquitaine from the Plantagenets 3) he established a royal bureaucracy 4) he enlarged the power of the French monarchy
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The Saxon King who created a new “Roman Empire” that included Germany and Italy was….
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Otto I
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Central issues complicating the realization of an integrated _____ were the difficulty of simultaneously controlling the Italian and German areas of the empire and opposition by the popes and cities of northern Italy
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Holy Roman Empire
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The principality of Kiev was founded by…
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Scandinavian Vikings
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The development of Russia
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1) Kievan Russia collapsed in the mid-12th century 2) Eastern Orthodoxy provided a major foundation for early Russian unity 3) Mongol recognition of the hegemony of Alexander Nevsky provided the foundation for further Russian domination from Moscow 4) Russia adopted it’s Christianity from the Byzantine empire
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The missionary brothers who created the Slavonic, or Cyrillic, alphabet, translated the bible into Slavonic, and who developed Slavonic church services were…
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Cyril and Methodius
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The
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1) divided into 7 specific groups during the Middle Ages 2) became Roman Catholic,with the exception of the Russians, Turks, and Magyars 3) converted to Islam after the first crusade 4) briefly occupied northern Italy
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During the ______, agricultural productivity improved
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High Middle Ages
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High Middle Ages agriculture involved
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1) extensive swamp draining and land clearance 2) increased output by increasing the amount of land used for farming 3) improved methods through the use of iron tools 4) adopting the 3- field system
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_____ provided the economic foundation of feudalism
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Manorialism
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The medieval serfs lives
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1) needed the lord’s permission to leave the manor or to marry someone from elsewhere 2) was subject to the law of the manorial court 3) ha to pay fees to The lord for the services they needed 4) lives were often nasty, mean, brutish, and short
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The medieval Peasant’s life involved
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1) basic housing 2) women had a challenging role 3) diet was simple but adequate 4) owed labor services to The lord of the manor
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Medieval growth of cities
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1) received charters of liberties by the 1100s and 1200s 2) location near transportation routes was essential 3) were revived Roman locales whose size an populations grew as trade increased 4) begun at strategically viable locations
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Medieval Christianity
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1) influence of feudalism increased the secular behavior of many religious leaders 2) investiture struggle was fought over the temporal role into the appointment of church officials 3) Innocent III provided proof of papal supremacy with his actions in a number of matters regarding the European monarchs 4) new friars of the 1200s directly influenced the lives of ordinary people
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The _____ friars were first led by the highly intellectual Dominic de Guzmán
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Dominican
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The medieval religious order which was noted for it’s commitment to living among the common people and ministering to the poor was
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Franciscans
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The medieval _____ was originally an educational association of students or scholars, as at Bologna
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University
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Scholasticism
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1) is a term used to depict the philosophical and theological system of medieval institutions of learning 2) attempted to prove the unity of faith and reason 3) was preoccupied with establishing the concurrence between Christian and Aristotelian thought 4) theology was considered to be the “queen of the sciences”
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Romanesque architecture was characterized by
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1) barrel vaults 2) massive pillars and walls 3) dark on the inside 4) gave the impression of a fortress
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Gothic architecture was characterized by
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1) stained glass windows 2) ribbed vaults and pointed arches 3) flying buttresses 4) a play of lightness
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Motivation for the crusades included
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1) the desire for military adventure 2) religious fervor 3) the desire to gain riches and land 4) to allow the pope to assume the leadership in liberating the Holy Land
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These were participants in the 3rd crusade
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1) Richard the Lionhearted 2) Saladin 3) Frederick Barbarosa 4) Philip II Augustus
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The _______ resulted in the fall of Constantinople
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4th crusade
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The early 14th century was troubled by
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“Little ice age”
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The ____ was spread by fleas carrying Yersinia pestis
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Bubonic Plague
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_____ were Christian fanatics who physically scourged themselves during the Black Death
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Flagellants
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In the Hundred Years War
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1) new weapons were used in the war, including the long now and gunpowder 2) the English were victorious at the battles of Crecy and Agincourt 3) Joan of Arc was burnt at the stake 4) was fought between England and France
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In the early 14th century, the Catholic Church was moved to _____
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France
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The _____ saw 2 different individuals claiming to be the true pope
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Great Schism
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The council which ended the Great schism was the council of….
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Constance

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