Chapter 12: Quiz B

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Anglican Church
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Emphasized Protestant doctrine combined with traditional Catholic ritual. Under Elizabeth I, the church served as a middle way between Catholic and Protestant Extremes. Church of England; Anglican comes from the term Anglo-Saxon.
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Armada/Spanish Armada (1588)
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The Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spain’s Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
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Bavaria
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Catholic Bavaria, supported by Spain, became militarily and ideologically for the Counter-Reformation what the Palatinate was for the Protestantism. Under Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria, a catholic alliance was formed to counter the protestants.
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Bohemia
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Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, tries to make all Bohemians Catholic. Bohemians rejected the Hapsburg asking in favor of Calvinist ruler the Palatinate, Frederick V. After Frederick’s defeat at White Mountain in 1620, Bohemia was made Catholic, and Spanish took over.
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Centralized Episcopal System
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An hierarchical governance structure within both the Roman Catholic Church of England (Anglican Church)
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Defenestration of Prague (1618)
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Protestant nobility in Prague responded to Ferdinand’s act in May 1618 (revoking the religious freedom of Protestants) by throwing out regents out the window of the royal palace.
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Ecclesiastical Reservation
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The terms of Peace of Augsburg had attempted to freeze the territorial holdings of Lutherans and the Catholics.
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Edward VI (England)
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Son of Henry VIII of England; died in 1553; succeeded by Mary Tudor
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Edict of Restitution (1629)
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Issued by Ferdinand II. It reasserted the Catholic safeguards of the Peace of Augsburg, reaffirmed illegality of Calvinism, and ordered the return of all church lands the Lutherans acquired since 1552.
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Elizabeth I (England)/”Supreme Governor”
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Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, Mary’s successor. She guided a religious settlement through Parliament that prevented religious differences from tearing England apart in the 16th century. She was one of the known politiques.
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Ferdinand – Archduke of Styria/King of Bohemia/Ferdinand II (HRE)
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Future ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and king of Spain. He instigated a Protestant revolt by closing Protestant churches in Bohemia, which led to the Thirty Years’ War. Victorious Habsburg King, who reduced power of Bohemian estates, won the battle of White mountain He confiscated Protestant landholdings and gave them to Catholics.
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Heidelberg
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Became a German Geneva in 1560s; a center of Calvinism and staging area for Calvinist penetration into the empire.
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John Knox
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Fumed publicly and always with effect against the queen’s private Mass and other Catholic practices which Scottish law made a capital offense for everyone else. He wrote The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Terrible Regiment of Women: a work aimed towards Mary Tudor, but unfortunately published same year Elizabeth I came to throne which gained negative views.
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Mary Tudor/Mary I (England)
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Entered a highly popular political marriage with Philip II of Spain, a symbol of militant Catholicism to English Protestants. Parliament repealed to Protestant statutes of Edward and reverted to Catholic religious practice.
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Netherlands/United Provinces of the Netherlands (1581)
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Northern half of Netherlands, gained independence in 1690 by the Twelve Years’ Truce
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Palatine Calvinists
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They created a defensive alliance that received support from England, France, and the Netherlands.
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Peace of Westphalia/Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
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1. rescinded Ferdinand’s Edict of Restitution (1629) 2. reasserted the religious settlement of the Peace of Augsburg (1555) 3. recognized Calvinism as a legal religion within the Holy Roman Empire 4. proclaimed the independence of the Swiss Confederacy and the United Provinces of Holland 5. established a powerful Swedish presence in the northern Germany 6. Brandenburg-Prussia emerged as the most powerful northern German state 7. completely undermined the Holy Roman Empire as a viable state.
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Philip II (Spain)
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He declared William of Orange an outlaw and placed a bounty of crowns on his head. The act stiffened resistance of northern provinces. Orange denounced Philip as a tyrant whom the Netherlands no longer need to obey (the Apology). He began to meddle directly with French and English affairs. He signed a secret treaty Guises and sent armies under Alexander Farnese. Later married Mary I.
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Pope Pius V
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He favored a military conquest of Protestant England, “excommunicated” Elizabeth for heresy in 1570.
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Pope Sixtus V
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He learned of Mary’s death on March 24, slowness of comm., and promised to pay Philip one million gold ducats the moment Spanish troops landed in England.
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Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
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War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, France, and Denmark) and the emperor of his ally (Spain); it ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.
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Thirty-Nine Articles
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A revision of Thomas Cranmer’s original forty-two; made modern Protestantism the official religion within the Anglican Church
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e
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The Elizabethan religious settlement between Protestants and Catholics that created the Anglican Church can be described as all of the following EXCEPT: a. an example of Elizabeth’s political ability b. a political-religious compromise c. a victory of moderate Protestantism d. a policy that promoted political stability e. a reflection of Elizabeth’s own radical Protestant beliefs
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e
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The unpopularity of Mary I of England was the result of all of the following EXCEPT: a. her marriage to Philip II of Spain b. the repeal of Edward’s Protestant statutes c. the reversion to Catholic religious practices d. her execution of Protestant leaders e. her lack of legitimacy
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a
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The deterioration of Spanish relations with England was the result of all of the following EXCEPT: a. England’s increasing hostility to France b. Elizabeth I’s refusal to marry Philip II of Spain c. English intervention in the Netherlands d. the activities of English pirates e. the execution of Mary Queen of Scots
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c
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The Spanish invasion fleet the sailed on England in 1588 was known as the: a. Conquesta b. Armada c. Flotilla d. Divine Wind e. Spirit of Vengeance
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b
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In the second half of the sixteenth century, Germany was made up of: a. two major kingdoms b. about 360 autonomous political entities c. four rival political blocs d. three major kingdoms e. five rival political blocs
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c
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In 1600, the German population was: a. overwhelmingly Protestant b. overwhelmingly Catholic c. made up of roughly equal numbers of Catholics and Protestants d. among the poorest in Europe e. overwhelmingly in favor of religious tolerance
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a
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The Thirty Years’ War first erupted in: a. Bohemia b. Saxony c. Brandenburg d. the Spanish Netherlands e. the Swiss Confederation
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b
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After the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, _______ emerged as Europe’s dominant country: a. Spain b. France c. England d. the Holy Roman Empire e. the Netherlands
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b
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Which significant event weakened the Spanish dominance in Europe, from which Spain never fully recovered? a. the assassination of Henry IV b. the defeat of the Spanish Armada c. the assassination of Henry III d. the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre e. the English conquest of New Spain
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e
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Bavaria was a major center of: a. Calvinist power b. Lutheran power c. textile production d. Anabaptist agitation e. Catholic power
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d
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One of the first actions Ferdinand took as king of Bohemia was to: a. declare the Lutheran religion as the only legal religion in Bohemia b. warn the Jesuits to leave or be exiled or sentenced to death c. ban the practice of Catholicism in Protestant Bohemia d. revoke the religious freedoms of the Bohemian Protestants e. renounce his own Catholicism
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e
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The Thirty Years’ War began as a/an: a. a peasant uprising b. trade war between Bohemia and Saxony c. outgrowth of German interference in the Netherlands d. a border dispute between Bavaria and Austria e. a revolt of Protestant nobility against an unpopular king
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b
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It was during this period of fighting that Ferdinand issued the Edict of Restitution and struck panic in the hearts of Protestants: a. the Bohemian Period b. the Danish Period c. the Swedish Period d. the Swedish-French Period e. the International Period
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d
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In the Thirty Years’ War, France supported: a. the German Catholics b. the Holy Roman Emperor c. Spain d. the German Protestants
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e
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This Treaty brought the Swedish period of the war to an end: a. Treaty of Loges b. Treaty of Geneva c. Peace of Leipzig d. Union of Cologne e. Peace of Prague
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d
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The battle at Breitenfeld in 1630 marked a turning point in the Thirty Years’ War. Who won that battle? a. the Spanish b. the French c. the Dutch d. the Swedish e. the Poles
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e
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Which of the following was NOT a phase of the Thirty Years’ War? a. the Swedish-French Period b. the Danish Period c. the Bohemian Period d. the Swedish Period e. the French-Netherlandish Period

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