Chapter 12 Organic Chemistry Test Questions

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Organic
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Animals, vegetables, living things- any compound that is carbon based
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Properties of Organic Compounds
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non polar, low melting points and boiling points, not soluble in water, less dense than water, highly flammable
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Formula for Alkanes
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Cn2Hn+2
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Formula for Cycloalkanes
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CnH2n
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Shape of Ethane, C2H6
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Tetrahedral
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C3H8 inorganic/organic?
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Organic
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CaCl2 inorganic/organic?
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Inorganic
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Prefix for alkane with 1 carbon atom
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Methane
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Prefix for alkane with 2 carbon atoms
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Ethane
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Prefix for alkane with 3 carbon atoms
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Propane
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Prefix for alkane with 4 carbon atoms
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Butane
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Prefix for alkane with 5 carbon atoms
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Pentane
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Prefix for alkane with 6 carbon atoms
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Hexane
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Prefix for alkane with 7 carbon atoms
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Heptane
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Prefix for alkane with 8 carbon atoms
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Octane
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Prefix for alkane with 9 carbon atoms
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Nonane
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Prefix for alkane with 10 carbon atoms
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Decane
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Prefix for alkane with 11 carbon atoms
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Undecane
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Prefix for alkane with 12 carbon atoms
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Dodecane
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Structural isomers
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When two compounds have the same molecular formula, but differ in the order in which the atoms are bonded
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Alkyl groups
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carbon branches and are named by replacing the -ane with -yl
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Alkyl group for Methane
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Methyl -CH3
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Alkyl group for Ethane
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Ethyl -CH2-CH3
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Alkyl group for Propane
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Propyl -CH2-CH2-CH3
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Halo groups
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Halogen atoms attached to the carbon chain named fluoro (-F), chloro (-Cl), bromo (-Br), or iodo (-I)
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Haloalkane
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Halogen atoms replace hydrogen atoms
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Alkanes are gases when there are how many carbon atoms?
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1-4 carbon atoms
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Alkanes are liquids when there are how many carbon atoms?
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5-8 carbon atoms
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Alkanes are solids when there are how many carbon atoms?
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9-17 carbon atoms
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Are Alkanes nonpolar/polar?
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Nonpolar
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Are Alkanes soluble or insoluble in water?
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Insoluble
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Are Alkanes less or more dense than water?
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Less dense so alkanes will float in water
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Do Alkanes have high or low melting and boiling points?
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Low melting and boiling points, the shorter the carbon chain the lower the melting and boiling point also the more branches the lower the melting and boiling point
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Do cycloalkanes have high or low melting and boiling points?
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Higher boiling points than straight chain alkanes
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Formula for Combustion of Alkanes
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Alkane + O2 ——-> CO2 + H2O + Energy
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Alkenes
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Contain a double bond
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Alkynes
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Contain a triple bond
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Aromatic Compounds
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Contain a benzene ring (cyclohexane with a circle in the middle)
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Alcohol
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Contains the hydroxyl (-OH) functional group
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Thiols
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Contains the functional group (-SH)
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Ethers
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an oxygen atom is bonded to two carbon atoms (-C-O-C-)
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Aldehyde
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Contains a carbonyl group (C=O) and attached to at least one hydrogen atom
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Ketone
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Contains a carbonyl group and is attached to two other carbon atoms
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Carboxylic Acid
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Contain the carboxyl group which is a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group
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Ester
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Contains the carboxyl group between carbon atoms
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Amine
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The functional group is a nitrogen atom
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Amide
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The hydroxyl group of a carboxylic acid is replaced by a nitrogen group
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Shape of Alkenes
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Trigonal Planar
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C2H4, Ethene’s common name
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Ethylene
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Shape of Alkynes
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Linear
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C2H2, Ethyne’s common name
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Acetylene
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Cis and Trans Isomers
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Same formula, different physical and chemical properties and occur because double bonds are rigid and cannot rotate
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Cis Isomer
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Groups are attached on the same side of the double bond
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Trans Isomer
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Groups are attached on opposite sides of the double bond
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Pheromones
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Chemical messenger emitted by insects in tiny quantities
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Addition Reactions
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reactants add to the carbon atoms in double or triple bonds
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Hydrogenation
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Type of addition reaction where Hydrogen (H2) is added and a catalyst is used to speed up the reaction. The product is an Alkane.
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Halogenation
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Type of addition reaction where a halogen (Cl2, F2, Br2, I2, Al2) is added there is no catalyst and the product is a Haloalkane.
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Hydrohalogenation
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Type of addition reaction where a Hydrogen (H2) and a Halogen (Cl2, F2, Br2, I2, Al2) is added there is no catalyst and the product is a Haloalkane.
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Hydration
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Type of addition reaction where water (H2O) or (H-OH) is added there is a acid catalyst and the product is a Alcohol
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What happens to the color when bromine is added to an alkane?
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The red color stays
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What happens to the color when bromine is added to an alkene or an alkyne?
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The red color of bromine disappears immediately
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Markovnikov’s Rule
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In asymmetrical alkenes, the H is added to the carbon in the double bond that has the greater number of H atoms
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Where do the H and OH bonds go in a reaction for Hydration?
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In hydration, the H atom bonds to the C that has more hydrogen atoms. The OH atom bonds to the C with the fewer number of hydrogen atoms.
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Polymers
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large molecules that consist of small repeating units called monomers.
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Polymerization
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Small repeating units called monomers join to form a long chain polymer
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PVC (polyvinyl chloride)
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made from chloroethene Cl CH2=CH
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PE (Polyethylene)
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made from ethene (ethylene) CH2=CH2
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PP (polypropylene)
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made from propene (propylene) CH3 CH2=CH
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Benzene structure
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has 6 electrons shared equally among the 6 C atoms, behaves more like an alkane; it does not undergo addition reactions, it is represented as a hexagon with a circle drawn inside
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Naming Aromatic Compounds
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named with benzene as the parent chain with one side group named in front of benzene
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What is Methylbenzene’s common name?
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Toluene, has a CH3 branch coming off the benzene ring
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What is Aminobenzene’s common name?
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Aniline, has a NH2 branch coming off the benzene ring
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What is Hydroxybenzene’s common name?
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Phenol, has a OH branch coming off the benzene ring
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Prefix for aromatic compound with 1, 2 branches of the same common name
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ortho (o)
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Prefix for aromatic compound with 1, 3 branches of the same common name
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meta (m)
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Prefix for aromatic compound with 1, 4 branches of the same common name
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para (p)
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What is Dimethylbenzene’s common name?
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Xylene
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Boiling/melting point of aromatic compounds?
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Have higher boiling/melting points
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Are aromatic compounds soluble or insoluble in water?
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Not soluble unless they contain OH OR COOH substituents
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Are aromatic compounds flammable or not?
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they are flammable

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