chapter 12 key issue ap hug

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Define service:
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Any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it
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What sector of the economy do services fall under?
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Tertiary
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Define settlement:
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Permanent collection of buildings where people reside, work and obtain services
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What distribution must services follow?
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The distribution of where people live within a city, country or world region
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What are the three subdivisions of the service sector of the economy?
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Consumer Services, Business Services, Public Services
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Define consumer services:
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Services provided to individual consumers who desire and can afford to pay for them
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What are the four main types of consumer services, and provide an example of each.
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Retail & Wholesale (dept. stores, grocers, car sales, etc.) – Education (public/private schools) – Health (hospitals, doctor offices, nursing homes) – Leisure & Hospitality (restaurants, bars, hotels)
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Define business services:
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Services that meet the needs of other businesses
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What are the three types of business services, and provide an example of each. –
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Professional (law, engineering, architectural, support) – Financial (banks, insurance, real estate) – Transportation & Information (trucking, utilities, publishing, broadcasting)
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Define public services:
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Provides security and protection for citizens and businesses
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Just under 10% of workers provide public services. Label the pie chart below with the appropriate categories.
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25% federal 25% state gov 50% local gov
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Changes in Number of Employees between 1972 and 2009 Business Services
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Increase in professional services Decrease in finance & transportation due to improved efficiency where fewer workers are needed
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Consumer Services
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Increase in healthcare, education & entertainment Retail has decreased
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Based on archaeological research, what services were most likely provided in history’s earliest settlements?
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Consumer and public services
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What early structures and permanent man-made features were associated with the first settlements?
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Places for ceremonies of the dead such as temples Places for dwellings such as houses
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What early structures and permanent man-made features were associated with early public services?
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Walls and citadels for defense
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What early structures and permanent man-made features were associated with early business services?
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Warehousing centers where people could trade goods and services
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identify four potential hearth regions for the worlds first urban settlements?
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Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, Indus Valley
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List three characteristics of the world’s first cities that emerged around 2000 BCE, as deduced from the excavations of Ur (modern Iraq) and Titris Hoyuk (modern Turkey).
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– Settlements were well planned communities – palaces, temples, public buildings in the center – Houses built around a courtyard
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What was a city-state?
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Independent self-governing communities that included settlement and a nearby countryside
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What services did the city-state provide to the surrounding hinterland?
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Gov’t, military protection, public services
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Large cities, such as ancient , began to supply what types of things not available in smaller settlements?
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Consumer services such as cultural activities
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Why did these large centers collapse with the fall of the in the 5th century CE?
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Because they relied on trading in a secure environment, but the empire now was fragmented and had hundreds of rulers
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What role did trade play in the revival of urbanism during the Middle Ages?
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– Trade expanded as a result of new roads and use of rivers – was filled with small market towns
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What were the five largest cities in the world during the Middle Ages (around 900)?
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(), Constantinople (), (), Changan & Hangchow ()
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Define dispersed rural settlement:
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Farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors
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How are strips of land allocated in a clustered rural settlement?
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-Farmers may own or rent land or land is owned by the settlements and farmers don’t control what they grow
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In a linear rural settlement, why are settlements clustered around roads and/or rivers?
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For communication and water source
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Why did colonists prefer clustered settlements?
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-Traveled to as a group – Wanted to reinforce common cultural and religious values – Defense against Indian attacks
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Why had owning several fields around a clustered rural settlement become disadvantageous?
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-Farmers lost time moving between fields – More roads needed to be built – Farmers were limited in what they could plant
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Why did many European countries convert to dispersed patterns?
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More efficient for agriculture
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Define enclosure movement:
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Between 1750 and 1850, ‘s consolidation of small landholdings into a few large farms
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What happened to ‘s displaced farmers?
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Moved to urban settlements and became factory workers
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Large Size
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– Know only small percentage of residents – Meet people in specific roles – Relationships are contractual (you’re paid wages; you pay others for goods and services)
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High Density
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– Each person performs a specific task to allow the urban system to function Encourages people to compete in a limited space – Stronger groups tend to dominate
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Social Heterogeneity
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– Variety of people – People have greater freedoms; people more tolerant of diverse behaviors – Can still feel isolated because they are surrounded by people who are indifferent
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Explain the difference between number or people living in large cities and the percentage of people living in large cities as it relates to MDCs and LDCs.
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– Large percentage reflects level of development and is typical in MDCs – Large number is people is reflected in LDCs as they have large urban settlements because migration from countryside to urban settlements is increasing population – Large number of people is reflected in LDCs due to high natural increase rates
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Define central place theory:
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Explains the distribution of services on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services
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What does central place theory seek to explain?
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How the most profitable location can be identified
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Define central place:
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Market center for the exchange of goods and services by people from the surrounding area
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What is a market area?
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Area surrounding a service where customers come from
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What other term is sometimes used to refer to a market area?
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Hinterland
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What shape does central place their hypothesize for market areas?
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Hexagon
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Why this particular shape? hexagon
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Unlike circles, hexagons rest without gaps; unlike squares, the distance from the center is not as great
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RANGE Definition:
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Maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
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THRESHOLD Definition:
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Minimum number of people needed to support the service (minimum number of customers needed to generate a profit)
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Services with LONG ranges:
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Concert, sporting event like a ball game
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Services with SHORTER ranges:
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Groceries; restaurants
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not all people within a market area can be counted when determining location of a service by considering its threshold. Explain how this is so, and provide examples Not all services appeal to everyone
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Movie theaters – young; Chiropractors – old Thrift stores – poor; Dept. stores – wealthy Amusement parks – families; Night clubs – singles
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According to geographers, where is the best location for a service (once range and threshold have justified its viability)?
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One that minimizes the distance to the service for the largest number of people
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The gravity model helps explain this as the optimal location is ________ related to the number of people in the area an ___________ related to the distance they must travel.
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directly, inversely
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What two patterns are reflected by consumer behavior?
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– Greater number of people in a particular place, the more potential customers – The farther people are from a particular service, the less likely they are to use it
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Small settlements have services with ________ thresholds, _____________ ranges and ___________ market areas.
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small, short, small
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Larger settlements have ____________ thresholds, ranges and market areas.
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larger
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However, smaller neighborhoods within larger settlements must also do what?
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Provide services having small thresholds and ranges
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Who created the original study in central place theory? Where?
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Walter Christaller; Southern Germany
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Who documented the central place phenomenon in the U.S.? Where?
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Brian Berry; Midwest U.S.
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In MDCs, the pattern of cities follows the rank-size-rule. What is it?
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A country’s nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement, i.e. 2nd largest settlement is ½ the size of the largest, 4th largest is ¼ the size of the largest
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If the largest city in a country is more than twice the size of the second city, it is said to be what?
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Primate city
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What is the situation in Europe and LDCs with regard to “rank-size” distribution and primate cities?
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EUROPE LDCs – Copenhagen, Denmark has 1 million inhabitants & 2nd largest city only 200,000 – London, England has 8 million inhabitants & 2nd largest city only 2 million – Not enough wealth in a society to pay for variety of services – This creates a hardship for people who must travel long distances
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Give several example cities from U.S.
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Boston, New Orleans, Atlanta, Dallas, Philadelphia, Denver, St. Louis, etc.
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WORLD CITIES List the 3 largest world cities:
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NY, London, Tokyo (DOMINANT)
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What do NY, London, Tokyo share? l
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They are centers of the flow of information & capital
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What is the “second tier” of world cities called?
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Major World Cities
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COMMAND & CONTROL CENTERS What services do NY, London and Tokyo cities contain?
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Large corporations, banking facilities, business services
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What groups of people and areas are provided goods by periodic markets?
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– People with low incomes – Sparse populations
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Define periodic market:
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Collection of individual vendors who come together to offer goods and services in a particular location on specific days
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SPECIALIZED PRODUCER SERVICES CENTERS Give examples of specializations & cities represented by each.
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Detroit – motor vehicles; Pittsburgh – steel; Rochester – office equipment; San Jose – semiconductors
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DEPENDENT CENTERS List the four sub-types of dependent centers and where they are located.
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Resort, Retirement, Residential Centers – South & West Manufacturing Centers – old Northeast Military Centers – South & West Mining Centers – near mining areas
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Basic industries originally referred to ____________, but in a postindustrial society, increasingly, the basic industries are in ________, ____________, and ___________ services.
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primary sector, business, consumer, public
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Explain how a basic industry creates new types of jobs.
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New basic industry stimulates new non-basic industries, i.e. supermarkets, restaurants
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What is the economic base of a community?
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Community’s unique collection of basic industries
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Define non-basic industry:
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Enterprises whose customers live in the same community (consumer services)
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Define basic industry:
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Industry that sells their products/services to consumers mainly outside the settlement
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Why have LDCs been able to attract back offices?
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Low wages & ability to speak English
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What are typical back-office functions?
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Insurance claim processing, payroll, transcription, routine clerical activities, billing inquiries, technical inquiries
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Where is a prominent example of an offshore center?
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Cayman Islands
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What functions do offshore centers provide, and explain each?
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– Taxes: tend to be low or nonexistent; given tax free status – Privacy: secrecy laws help people/businesses from disclosing information
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Cleveland’s economic base during the industrial period…
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steel
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Cleveland’s economic base in post-industrial society is…
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Hospitals, clinics & medical technology research Baltimore’s economic base during the industrial period…
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Baltimore’s economic base in post-industrial society is…
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services particularly biotechnology
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Baltimore’s economic base during the industrial period…
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fabricated steel product
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What did Richard Florida’s research deduce?
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– Individuals with special talents locate in cities with more cultural diversity – Cities with high cultural diversity have a high percentage of talented people

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