Chapter 11: Organizing the Body of the Speech

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introduction
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The first part of a speech, in which the speaker establishes the speech purpose and its relevance to the audience and previews the topic and main points.
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body
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The part of the speech in which the speaker develops the main points intended to fulfill the speech’s purpose. -main points, supporting points, and transitions
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conclusion
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The part of the speech in which the speaker reiterates the speech thesis, summarizes main points, and leaves the audience with something to think about and possibly act upon.
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main points
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Statements that express the key ideas and major themes of a speech. Their function is to make claims in support of the thesis statement.
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creating main points:
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-identify most important ideas you want to convey -what major finding emerge from research -restrict number of main points (2-7) -restrict each one to single idea -mutually exclusive of one another -express as declarative sentence -best recalled points are at end “recency effect” and beginning “primacy effect” -should flow directly from your specific purpose and thesis statements.
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supporting points
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Information (examples, narratives, testimony, and facts and statistics) that clarifies, elaborates, and verifies the speaker’s main points. -arrange in order of importance or relevance to main point
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Checklist for reviewing main and supporting points
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-Do the main points flow directly from the speech goal and thesis? -Do the main points express the key points of the speech? -Is each main point truly a main point or a sub point of another main point? -Is each main point substantiated by at least two supporting points—or none? -Do you spend roughly the same amount of time on each main point? -Are the supporting points truly subordinate to the main points? -Does each main point and supporting point focus on a single idea? -Are the main and supporting points stated in parallel form?
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coordination and subordination
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Logical alignment of speech points in an outline relative to their importance to one another. Coordinate ideas receive equal weight; subordinate ideas receive relatively less weight than coordinate ideas and are placed below them.
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coordinate points
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Speech points given the same weight in an outline and aligned with one another; thus Main Point II is coordinate with Maine Point I
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subordinate points
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Speech points subordinate to others that are thus given relatively less weight. In an outline, they are indicated by their indentation below the more important points.
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Principles of Coordination and Subordination
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-Assign equal weight to ideas that are coordinate -Assign relatively less weight to ideas that are subordinate -Indicate coordinate points by their parallel alignment -Indicate subordinate points by their indentation below the more important points -Every point must be supported by at least two points or none at all (consider how to address on dangling point by including it in the point above it).
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roman numeral outline
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An outline formate in which main points are enumerated with roman numerals; supporting points with capital letters; third-level points with Arabic numerals; and fourth-level points with lowercase letters.
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characteristics of well-organized speech
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-unity, when contains only points implied by the specific purpose and thesis statements -coherence, when organized clearly and logically, using principles of coordination and subordination to align speech point in order of importance -balance, appropriate emphasis or weight be given to each part of the speech relative to the other parts and to the theme
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transitions
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Words, phrases, or sentences that tie speech ideas together and enable a speaker to move smoothly from one point to the next.
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Use transitions to move between:
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-The intro and the body of speech -The main points -The subpoenas, when appropriate -Body of the speech & conclusion
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Transitions can….
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-Introduce main points -Illustrate cause and effect -Signal explanation and examples -Emphasize, repeat, compare, contrast ideas -Summarize and preview info -Suggest conclusions from evidence
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Use transitional words and phrases….
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-To show comparisons -To contrast ideas -To illustrate cause and effect -To illustrate sequence of time or events -To indicate explanation -To indicate additional examples -To emphasize significance -To summarize
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full sentence transitions
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A signal to listeners, in the form of a declarative sentence, that the speaker is turning to another topic. -Use when moving from one main point to another
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preview statement
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Statement included in the introduction of a speech in which the speaker identifies the main speech points.
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internal preview
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An extended transition that alerts audience members to ensuing speech content.
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internal summary
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An extended transition used within the body of a speech that summarizes important ideas before proceeding to another speech point.

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