Chapter 11- Civil War

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Civil War—name the two sides and the event which started the war:
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The North is called the Union, U.S.A, or Yankees. The South is called the Confederacy, C.S.A, or Rebels. The battle at Fort Sumter started the war. The upper South seceded when Fort Sumter was invaded
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First Battle of Bull Run—what happened when General McDowell marched his poorly trained troops into Virginia?
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Since General McDowell’s troops were poorly trained, it took his troops too long to march to Manassas, Virginia. During this time period, General P.G.T. Beauregard was able to add an additional 11,000 troops to his army at Bull Run, about 4 miles north of Manassas. On July 21st, 1861, the Union and the Confederacy soldiers fought hard for long hours. But when a fresh wave of Confederate soldiers came to launch a counterattack, the unskilled Union soldiers fled in pure terror, in no order whatsoever, into the safe confines of Washington, D.C.
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Stonewall Jackson—How did he earn this nickname during the Battle of Bull Run?
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Earned his nickname “Stonewall” by holding his forces steady under extreme pressure at the First Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)
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What categories are considered “casualties”?
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Casualties consist of dead, wounded, missing, or captured. Anyone who cannot help fight anymore.
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What were the key strengths of the North? Key strengths of the South?
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NORTH: better prepared for war; had more than twice as much railroad tracks (made movement of troops, food, and supplies easier), more than twice as many factories to produce guns and ammunition SOUTH: majority of officers were southerners; southern army did not need to initiate any military action to win the war; they felt they had a reason to fight (to preserve way of life, and have their right to self government)
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General Scott’s Anaconda Plan—explain each part
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After the fall of Fort Sumter, Lincoln ordered a naval blockade of the seceded states. By shutting down the south’s ports along the Atlantic Coast and the Gulf of Mexico, Lincoln hoped to keep the South from shipping its cotton to Europe. He also wanted to prevent Southerners from importing the manufactured goods they needed. This was all part of a strategy developed by General Winfield Scott. He realized that it would take a long time to raise and train an army that was big and strong enough to invade the South successfully. Instead, he proposed to choke off the Confederacy with the blockade and to use troops and gunboats to gain control of the Mississippi River, thus cutting the Confederacy in two.
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Define “war of attrition” and explain why the South relied on this technique of war
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War of attrition is a type of war in which one side inflicts continuous losses on the other in order to wear down its strength. Southerners counted on their forces being able to turn back Union attacks until Northerners lost the will to fight. But in the end, it was the North that waged a successful war of attrition against the South.
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Explain how each of these are an improvement over older technology: bullets, rifling (rifles), artillery shells, canisters-
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Bullets: drifted less as it flew through the air instead of the older type of ammunition, the round ball Rifling (Rifles): a spiral grove cut on the inside of a barrel would make the fired bullet pick up spin, causing it to travel straighter and faster. Older muskets had no rifling and were accurate for only about 100 yards. Rifles could hit targets 500 yards away. Artillery Shells: devices that exploded in the air or when they hit something. This was instead of just iron cannon balls. Canisters: a special type of shell filled with bullets. This turned canons into giant shotguns.
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How did General Ulysses S. Grant use gunboats at Forts Henry and Donelson?
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Grant’s objectives were Fort Henry and Fort Donelson located over the border in the Confederate state of Tennessee. The forts protected the Tennessee River and Cumberland rivers, which were important water routes. These gunboats pounded Fort Henry to surrender before Grant’s troops arrived
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How many casualties did the Union suffer at the Battle of Shiloh? How many Confederate casualties? How do you think this compares with a single day of American casualties currently in Afghanistan or Iraq?
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The Union suffered 13,000 and the Confederates nearly 11,000 casualties. I think that these numbers are much worse than those suffered in Iraq today, considering this is a battle famous for it’s number of deaths and casualties.
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Why was it important for the Union for Captain (later Admiral) Farragut to take New Orleans?
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He took over the Mississippi River capturing Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and Natchez, Mississippi. Later seizing Memphis, Tennessee, leaving only two major posts on the Mississippi River to the Confederates.
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How were the U.S.S. Monitor and the C.S.S. Merrimack constructed differently than other ships?
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The Merrimack was constructed by bolting iron plates to an old wooden steamship. The Monitor was constructed with similarities to the Merrimack. The Monitor was made entirely out of iron looking like a tin can on a raft.
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What were the goals of the Union’s Peninsular Campaign, but why did it fail:
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The Union was anxious to avenge their defeat at Bull Run, and General George McClellan ordered the Army of the Potomac to go to Manassas and he transported about 100,000 of them to a peninsula. Once landed, they encountered about 15,000 Southerners. McClellan requested back up but did not advance until a month later, when the defenders left their position, then turned around and attacked. The North claimed victory but both sides suffered heavy casualties.
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After Gen. Robert E. Lee’s victory over the Union army in the Second Battle of Bull Run, what bold move did he make?
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Lee decided to invade the North. He hoped to win a victory on Union soil and gain the support of European countries and turn Northern opinion against the war. Lee’s army bypassed the Union troops guarding Washington and slipped in to western Maryland. The Union had no idea where the Confederates were until they found a copy of Lee’s orders wrapped around a left cigar. This led to the Battle of Antietam.
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U.S. General George McClellan should have won the Battle of Antietam. Why?
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Within the first three hours of fighting, there were nearly 14,000 casualties (amounts to 1/3) in Lee’s army. The next day the Confederates retreated back into Virginia, and Lincoln telegraphed McClellan to “Destroy the rebel army if possible,” but he did not take advantage of his opportunity to destroy Lee’s army.
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Explain how THE DRAFT was a problem for the South during the Civil War?
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General Lee called for a draft (required military service) in case there weren’t enough soldiers for the war. Opponents of strong central government claimed that a draft violated the principles of states’ rights that the South was fighting for.
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Explain how INCOME TAX was a problem for the South during the Civil War?
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To help raise money for the war, the Confederate congress imposed a tax on personal incomes, which was disliked by the people who had to pay them.
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Explain how STATE’S RIGHTS were a problem for the South during the Civil War?
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A fierce commitment to states’ rights worked against the Confederate government and harmed the war effort in many ways.
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How did the Trentaffair cause Lincoln to back down?
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The Confederate president Davis sent two representatives from the Confederacy to England and France. After evading the Union blockade, the two representatives boarded the British mail ship Trent and steamed for Europe. A Union warship stopped the Trent and brought the two Confederate officials and brought them to the U.S. An outraged British government sent troops to Canada and threatened war unless the two men were freed. President Lincoln ordered their release.
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Define martial law and explain why Lincoln declared it in some of the Border States-
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emergency rule by military authorities, during which some Bill of Rights guarantees are suspended. Lincoln declared this in some of the Border States because he wanted to secure Kentucky since the Union needed the Loyalty of Kentucky and Missouri in order to keep control of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.
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What is the “writ of habeas corpus” and why did Lincoln suspend it in some places?
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The “writ of habeas corpus” is a legal protection requiring that a court determine if a person is lawfully imprisoned . Lincoln suspended it because it allows people to be held in jail for indefinite periods even though they haven’t been charged with a crime. The Constitution allows suspension of the “writ of habeas corpus” during a rebellion. Lincoln did this to quiet the opponents in the United States and keep opposition quiet.
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What did the Emancipation Proclamation do, but how was it also limited in scope
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The Emancipation Proclamation is a presidential decree, by president Lincoln, effective January 1, 1863, that freed slaves in Confederate-held territory. This decree had little direct impact on slavery because it applied only to places that were under Confederate control. The Border States could still have slavery.
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Explain how INCOME TAX caused problems for the North during the Civil War-
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Same reason for the South. It was a tax they did not have before and did not want now.
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Explain how GREENBACKS caused problems for the North during the Civil War-
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Not backed by gold or silver. And we not regulated and fluctuated. Take it off the gold/silver and it’s just paper.
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Explain how COPPERHEADS caused problems for the North during the Civil War-
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Made up of a group of Democrats against the war. They warned that Republican policies would bring a flood of freed slaves to the North & that the freed slaves would take jobs away from the whites. Also, Radical copperheads tried to persuade Union soldiers to desert the army, and they urged other Northerners to resist the draft.
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Who were declared to be “contraband of war” and why?
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Slaves were considered to be “contrabands of war.” Benjamin Butler devised a legal argument that allowed the Union army to free escaped slaves they captured. Because it was generally accepted that one side’s possessions could be seized by its enemy. And because they were property, the slaves could then be let go.
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Was it easy to be an African American soldier during the Civil War? Explain.
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No. Racial discrimination was prevalent even in the North, and discriminatory practices permeated the U.S. military. They served in all-black regiments under the command of white officers. And they earned less pay. Black units were not used in combat extensively. They also faced greater peril than white troops when captured by the Confederate Army. The Confederate Congress threatened to punish severely officers of black troops and to enslave black soldiers.
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What heroic actions were taken by the African American 54th Massachusetts Infantry at Fort Wagner ?
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The 54th Massachusetts Infantry, commanded by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, led the attack on the Fort. There actions demonstrated what Lew’s father, Fredrick Douglas, wrote in his newspaper.
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Describe the Confederate Andersonville prison conditions for captive Union soldiers-
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One of the most notorious South prison camp. It was built to hold 10,000 men, it eventually confined nearly 35,000 Northerners in a fenced, 26-acre open area. About 100 prisoners died each day, usually of starvation or exposure.
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How did Clara Barton earn the nickname “angel of the battlefield” ?
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Clara was a government clerk who quit her job in order to supplies and first aid to Union troops in camp and during battle. This got her the name from the soldiers as “angel of the battlefield” She continued her service after the war by starting the American Red Cross.
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Fort Sumter is taken by the Confederate army and the First Battle of Bull Run takes place in Virginia. Explain this-
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Confederates “Stonewall” Jackson defeat the USA McClellan who was named General-in-Chief of USA “Army of the Potomac”. RESULT: The North realized that the war was not going to end quickly.
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Ulyssess S. Grant (The Union) took 3 forts with the help of U.S. gunboats. What were the 3 forts?
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Fort Henry, For Donelson, and Shilod
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Describe the battle in the west led by Grant (The Union) which he won called the Battle at Fort Henry and Donelson.-
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Grant began a campaign throughout western Tennessee and the Cumberland River valley. He cleared out the forts with gunboats.
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Describe the battle of Shiloh in 1862 led by Grant (The Union) who won the battle-
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After the win at Donelson they headed towards Pittsburgh Landing. This was important because there was a strategic railroad which the Union wanted more.
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What did Union generals Pope and Foote do and what was the result?
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They seized most of the Mississippi fro Memphis up to Vicksburg Ferragut’s ships took New Orleans which prevented supplies from entering the Confederate states of America. Result: The south was almost completely divided at the Mississippi, the confederate troops in the West were cut off from supplies and the North was able to use the Mississippi.
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greenbacks-
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northern currency
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antiteium
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the bloodiest single day of battle
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Be able to write an essay evaluating the success of each part of the Anaconda Plan
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Named for the snake which squeezes its prey to death, the strategy was designed to strangle the South, Four Parts: Capture the confederate capital city of Richmond and the rest of Virginia.(didnt even get near richomon till 64 the war started in 61- failed attempts were first and second bull run, penisular campaign, and wilderness battle finally wins.) Invade the Deep South from Tennessee to move into the south. (unseccessful) Strike along the Mississippi River to split the Confederacy (yes- in 62 we had everything but the city of vickburg.) Blockade all southern ports to prevent imports. (successful- slowly strangled the economic life out of the south)
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Be able to write an essay evaluating whether Lincoln is deserving of the title “The Great Emancipator”
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Pro and Con set up: con- he created the emancipation proclamation which was only partial. he freed slaves in the southern states besides the border states because he was worried they would succeed if he let the slaves free. This was affective January 1st in 63 and the war began in 61 so it took him 2 years to free the slaves and he didn’t do it right away. his goal was to keep the south in the union and was not to abolish slavery so if he was a great emancipator he would have done it his first day in office. pro- he allowed the northern army free the slaves under the law of emancipation proclamation. Then the 13th amendment is a document that frees all slaves.
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Know the new forms of weapons, ships, etc.
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Submarines- used for first time in this war. Confederate submarine Hunley became the first sub to sink a warship, however the explosion from the torpedo, which was placed on a long pole attached to the sub, also sank the Hunley. Balloons- hot air balloons Hot air balloons were used for reconnaissance work, and had an advantage of seeing a birds eye view of soldiers location, weapons, and forts. Gatling guns- machine guns (multiple bullets in a minute) Ironclads- ships that had metal iron plates on the outside. no sails, steam powered, cannon balls bounced off of the Iron. U.S.S. Merrimack first ship built by Confederates. U.S.S Monitor was created by the Union, it was a ship that allowed the men to be under the waterline. these two ships fought for a while but could not sink each other so the battle turned out to be a draw. The battle between these two ships changed warfare forever. Later on the Merrimack was about to be taken over by the Monitor so the south sunk their ship on purpose. And the Merrimack later sinks in a storm. “The Dictator”- one of the weapons used by the North had a mortar used to shell positions in the city from a distance of approximately 2 and 1/2 miles Other Civil War military “firsts” The Minie ball- completely destroy flesh and bone if hit in the right spot. Repeating rifles- being able to put several shells in a rifle, don’t have to load it after every bullet. Heavy artillery- exploding shells Trench Warfare- needed because bullets were more accurate. Significant use of railroads- Land mines- Telescopic rifle sights- scope you put on the stop of the rifle which magnifies the distance so you can see closer with a more accurate angle.
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Southern ironclad
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Monitor
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President of the Confederacy
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Jefferson Davis
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Who was hesitant and cautious
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McClellan
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General of the army of Virginia
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Lee
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A Women who helped wounded soldiers
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Clara Barton
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Naval officer who took New Orleans
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admerial farrugot
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last major battle along the Mississippi
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Vicksburg
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What were the two southern invasions stopped by the Union
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Antietam and Gettysburg
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What is the Peninsular Campaign or the Seven days battle?
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The problem with McClellan’s leaderships plan was- the men loved him because he fed them. he was to careful and cautious though The Navy transports his army from D.C. to the Confederate capital of Richmond so they are trying the water route. By the time that he gets there he can’t break through their defenses and he fails and is fired. This battle has two names because its called the seven days battle because it lasted a week and called the peninsular campaign because he traveled up the peninsula. Since he waited to March to Richmond that is why he lost.
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What happened at The Battle of the Second Bull Run?
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The battle was near a strategic railroad line in Virginia which Union General Pope hoped to seize. The Confederate forces crushed Pope’s army Pope lost 15,000 men and him and his men were forced to retreat in defeat.
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What happened at the Battle of Antietam?
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The Confederates are invading the Union in Maryland. It was a one day battle and they lost more men in this battle then Gettysburg which was a 3 day battle. McClellan learned Lee’s plan when he found it bundled up in three cigars but even though he knew the plan he believed lee had a larger force and acted very cautiously. Lincoln left D.C. and went to McClellan’s came to tell him to attack.
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The “Substitute” system-
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rich people could pay someone $300 to go into their place. ” A rich man’s war…but a poor man’s fight.” Confederate law also allowed for substitutes and exemptions for planters with more than 20 slaves.
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The First Conscription Act-
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The Union army needed more soldiers so under the law all men between the ages of 20 and 45 were eligible to be called for military service.
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What was Robert E. Lee’s dilemma
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Offered command of the Union Army Waited to see if Virginia would secede Virginia seceded the next day, and Lee resigned his commission.
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War of Attrition
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you delay your enemy for as long as possible until the other side gives up before you.
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sedition
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speech that advocates revolution against government
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habeas corpus
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a citizen’s constitutional right to having formal charges brought up against him in a court of law. ((when he did this people were stuck in jail for 3 years or more till they felt like holding a trial. He took away citizens constitutional rights but he didn’t care he said sue me! They did but by the time the law suits were filed the war was over, so it didn’t matter.))
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Andersonville
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is the most famous Southern prison camp. brutal conditions like overcrowding and lack of water and food.
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Pickett’s Charge (in the battle of Gettysburg)
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This will be a fail attack because they had to march through open land. Lee retreated the next day after the confederate attack was stopped and they suffered high casualties. Lee believed an attack on the union center line would be the most effective way of defeating the Union army and winning the battle.
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Explain the Battle of Vicksburg
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The last major city on the Mississippi River eastern side. Lincoln believed that taking the city was pivotal to winning the war Naval bombardment of the town had failed and Lincoln assigned Grant to take the city by land. Grants strategy was to cross the mississippi river below Vicksburg and com up from the east to take the town. He went through the swamp to do this. Confederates finally surrendered after 5 battles at 10p.m. on July 3, 1863 after being surrounded by the Union and white flags were flown throughout the city on July 4, 1863.
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Explain the Wilderness Campaign
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This is a series of battles took place in the wilderness area of Virginia with the goal of seizing Richmond, the confederate capital. Grant was initially defeated but instead of retreating, as other Generals had, he continued to stay and fight. (all out war) Grant wanted to clear the area before marching on Lee, but Lee attacked Grant before the area could be cleared out. Because of dense foliage, troops accidentally fired on their own men Grant lost more men then Lee but Grant had a larger army and could take the hit and keep going. Grant also had reserve enough that he could easily replenish his force.
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Explain Sherman’s March to the Sea
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General Sherman wanted to cut through the heartland of the south to destroy anything of military value in order to demonstrate that the Southern Army could not protect their own land. He believed this would force the confederacy to surrender Grant would attack from east, Sherman from the west. Sherman decided to abandon his supply lines and march directly to the sea foraging off the land, to supply his troops, and burning anything the south might be able to use to make war. By Christmas of 1864 Sherman had taken Savannah. His men sure that the end of the war was in sight, stopped burning home and factories and instead began distributing excess food. During this time Lincoln was reelected and picked a democrat to run with him. Because of Lincoln, Congress passes the 13th Amendment, to be ratified by the states. What Does the 13th Amendment say? “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.” This banded slavery in the rest of the states including the border states.
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Why did Lee Sign the surrender terms
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Confederate officers could keep their side arms and personal possessions. Officers and men who claimed to own their horses could keep them. Each officer and men was allowed to return to their home, “not to be disturbed by the United States authorities.” Grant also offered Lee 25,000 food rations for Confederate soldiers.

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