Chapter 10 – Nervous System

Flashcard maker : Jazzlyn Sampson
blood brain barrier
blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter brain tissue and keep other out
Astrocyte
type of glial (neuroglial) cell that transports water and salts fro capillaries
Cauda equina
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells
Axon
microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
Afferent Nerve
carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from receptors
Brainstem
lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord
Cell body
part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
Arachnoid Membrane
middle layer of meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Autonomic Nervous System
contains nerves that control involuntary body functions or muscles, glands, and internal organs
Efferent Nerve
Motor nerve that carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrum
largest part of the brain
Central nervous system
includes the brain and spinal cord
Dendrite
microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first to receive a nervous impulse
Cerebellum
posterior part of the brain; coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
Ependymal Cell
Glial (neuroglial) cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord; helps form cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebral cortex
outer region of the cerebrum; contains sheets of nerves
cerebrospinal fluid
circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
dura mater
thick, outermost layer of the meninges
cranial nerves
twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain
Hypothalamus
portion of the brain that controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland
myelin sheath
white, fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell
Glial cell
supportive and connective type of nerve cell; does not carry nervous impulses
Meninges
membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
gyrus
sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the brain
neuron
nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body
ganglion
collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS
medulla oblongata
portion of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels
motor nerve
carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; efferent nerve
nerve
macroscopic cordlike collection of fibers that carry electrical impulses
Pons
part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and rest of the midbrain
Neurotransmitter
chemical messenger, released at the end of a nerve cell
parenchyma
essential, distinguishing tissue of an organ or system
pia mater
thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
receptor
organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to afferent nerves
microglial cell
Phagocytic glial cell
plexus
Large, interlacing network of nervous
peripheral nervous system
nerves outside the brain and spinal cord including cranial and spinal nerves
parasympathetic nerves
involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such heart rate, breathing, and gastrointestinal muscles
oligodendroglial cell
glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axon
Sulcus
depression or groove in the surface od the cerebral cortex
stroma
connective and supporting tissue of an organ; glial cells of the brain
Vagus nerve
tenth cranial nerve
sensory nerve
carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord; afferent nerve
thalamus
main relay center of the brain
sympathetic nerves
autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress
sciatic nerve
spinal nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot
stimulus
agent of change (light, sound, touch) that evokes a response
synapse
space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscles or glandular cells
ventricles of the brain
canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid
encephaloitis
inflammation of the brain
Subdural hematoma
collection of blood located below the dura mater
cerebellar
pertaining to the cerebellum
cerebral cortex
pertaining to the outer section of the cerebrum
epidural hematoma
collection of blood located above the dura mater
encephalopathy
disease of the brain
anencephaly
congenital absence of a brain
leptomeningeal
pertaining to the pia and arachnoid membranes
meningioma
tumor of the membranes around the brain and spinal cord
Myelogram
disease of the spinal cord
neuropathy
disease of nerves
glioblastoma
malignant tumor of immature glial cells
myoneural
pertaining to muscles and nerves
myelomeningocele
hernia of the spinal cord and meninges
polyneuritis
inflammation of many nerves
radiculitis
inflammation of a nerve root
poliomyelitis
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
cerebellopontine
pertaining ti the cerebellum and the pons
radiculopathy
disease of a nerve root
causalgia
intense burning sensation
vagal
pertaining to the tenth cranial nerve
anesthesic
condition of lack of sensation
comatose
pertaining to a state of unconscious
intrathecal
drugs are delivered into a space within the meninges
thalamic
pertaining to an area of brain that is a relay station for nerve impulses
Hyperesthesia
condition of increased sensation
paraesthesia
abnormal sensation
analgesia
condition of lack of sensitivity to pain
hyperalgesia
diminished sensation to pain
bradykinesia
slow movement
tardivedyskinesia
abnormal movement occurring late in treatment
trigeminalneuralgia
nerve pain related to the 5th cranial nerve
akinesia
pertaining to without movement
cephalalgia
headache
Hyperkinesis
excessive movement
narcolepsy
compulsion (seizure) to sleep
dysaphasia
reading, writing, and learning disorders
hemiparesis
weakness in the right or left side (half) of the body
aphasia
inability to speak
quadriplegia
paralysis of the lower portion of the body
syncopal
pertaining to fainting
ataxia
lack of coordination
apraxia
movements and behavior are not purposeful (actions are not appropriate)
hemiplegia
paralysis of one side of the body
neurasthenia
nervous exhaustion and fatigue
paraplegia
paralysis of all four extremities
Epilepsy
Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Degenerative disorder of neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem
Multiple sclerosis
Destruction of myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS; replacement by plaques of sclerotic
Huntington disease
Hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration
Spina bifida
Congenital defect in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect Union of vertebrae; may involve myelomeningocele
Hydrocephalus
Abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles of the brain
Alzheimer’s disease
Brain disorder marked by gradual, progressive mental deterioration; personality changes; and impairment of daily functioning
Myasthenia gravis
Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles
Parkinson’s disease
Degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia; occurring later in life and leading to tremors, muscle weakness, and slowness of movement
Palsy
Paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function)
Dementia
mental decline and deterioration
Herpes zoster
viral infection affecting peripheral nerves; marked by eruption of painful blisters
Tourette syndrome
involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds
Migraine
severe, recurrent, unilateral, vascular headache
Cerebrovascular accident
disruption in normal blood supply to the brain; stroke
Cerebral contusion
bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head
Brain tumor
abnormal growth of brain tissue (glial cells) and meninges
Meningitis
inflammation of the membranes around the brain and spinal cord
Cerebral contusion
traumatic brain injury caused by a blow to the head; no evidence of structural damage to brain tissue
HIV encephalopathy
brain disease occurring with AIDS
Aura
peculiar sensation that occurs before the onset, as the convulsion of an epileptic seizure
Gait
Manner of walking
Palliative
Relieving symptoms, but not curing the illness
Tonic-clonic seizure
Major convulsive seizure marked by sudden loss of consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching and jerking movements
Aneurysm
Enlarged,weakened area in an artery
Tic
involuntary movement of a small group of muscles, as of the face; characteristic of tourette syndrome
Ictal event
pertaining to a sudden, acute onset as of the convulsions of an epileptic seizure
Dopamine
neurotransmitter that is deficient in patients with parkinson disease
Embolus
clot of material that travels through the bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel
Astrocytoma
malignant tumor of a type of neuroglial cells in the brain
Absence seizure
minor form of seizure
Demyelination
destruction of the covering on axons of neurons in CNS
Thymectomy
removal of a gland in the mediastinum (treatment for myasthenia gravis)
Occlusion
blockage of blood vessel
LP
cerebrospinal fluid is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae
MRI of the brain and spinal cord
Magnetic waves and radio wave energy create images (of brain and spinal cord) in three planes
CSF analysis
Samples of cerebrospinal fluid are examined
Myelography
X-ray imaging of the spinal cord after injection of contrast material within the subarachnoid space
PET scan of the brain
radioactive glucose is injected and detected in the brain to image the metabolic activity of cells
Cerebral angiography
X-ray imaging of arterial blood vessels in the brain after injection of contrast material
Doppler/Ultrasound studies
sound waves detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranial arteries
CT of brain and spinal cord
x-ray technique that produces computerized multiple (especially cross-sectional) images of the brain and spinal cord
Stereotactic radiosurgery
use of specialized instrument (gamma knife) to locate and treat targets in the brain
EEG
recording of the electrical activity of the brain
Part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements and maintaining balance:
Cerebellum
Pertaining to muscles and nerves:
Myoneural
Neurotransmitter:
Acetylcholine
Part of the nerve cell that first receives the nervous impulse is the:
Dendrite
Elevated portions of the cerebral cortex are called:
Gyri
Burning sensation of pain:
Causalgia
A network of interlacing nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system:
Plexus
Portion of the brain that controls the pituitary gland, water balance, and body temperature:
Hypothalamus
Glial cells:
Astrocytes
Space between nerve cells is called the:
Synapse
Part of the brain that controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels:
Medulla oblongata
Inability to speak:
Aphasia
Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord:
Cauda Equina
Disease of the spinal cord:
Myelopathy
Collection of blood within the meningeal layers:
Subdural hematoma
Abnormal sensation of tingling or prickling:
Paresthesia
Inflammation of a spinal nerve root:
radiculitis
A highly malignant brain tumor:
Glioblastoma
Paralysis of four extremities:
Quadriplegia
Cerebral aneurysm, thrombosis, or hemorrhage can be the cause of:
Cerebrovascular accident
Fainting:
Syncope
Spina bifida is associated with:
Myelomeningocele
Parkinson disease is a characterized by:
Shuffling gait
Disorder of reading,writing, and learning is:
Dyslexia
Condition of no nervous sensation:
Anesthesia

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