Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology

SQ3R
Survey Question Read, Recite, Review

Scientific Method
Step1: observe and theorize
Step2: Formulate a hypothesis
Step3: Design a study
Step4: collect data
Step5: Apply results to the hypothesis

Goals of psychology
Description
Prediction
Explanation
Influence

Two Types of Research
Basic Research
Applied Research

Wilhelm Wundt
Father of psychology

Edward B. Titchener
Student of Wundt, Structuralism

Variables
Independent- Manipulated
Dependent- Measured

Sources of Bias
Selection bias, placebo effect, experimenter bias

Major perspectives in psychology
behavioral
psychoanalytic
cognitive
evolutionary
biological
sociocultural

Schools of thought in Psychology
Behaviorism, psychoanalysis, Humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology, Gestalt Psychology, Evolutionary psychology, Biological (physiological) psychology, sociocultural

The information processing theory in cognitive psychology assumes that the human brain
process information in sequential steps

A descriptive research method in which researchers use interviews and/or questionnaires to gather information about the attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors of a group of people is known as a
survey

the orderly, systematic procedures that researchers follow as they identify a research problem, design a study to investigate the problem, collect and analyze data, draw conclusions, and communicate their findings are called
scientific method

a theory that has______ stimulates debate among psychologists; it motivates both its proponents and its opponents to pursue research related to it
heuristic value

Data representing two or more variables can be expressed in a correlation coefficient. The ________ in a correlation coefficient indicates the strength of the relationship between two variables
Numerical value

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding correlational studies?
correlations are quite useful for making predictions

Which descriptive research method involves studying a single individual or a small number of persons in great depth over an extended period of time
case study

the first formal school of thought in psychology practiced by Edward B. Titchener, was
structuralism

when we engage in critical thinking, we exhibit
willingness to modify or abandon prior judgments

In an experiment, the ___________ group is used for comparison purposes
control

if you encounter an article in a prestigious journal that corresponds to what you believe is true you should
question it

____________ psychology is the area of speciality that investigates how the individual feels, thinks, and behaves in the presence of others
social

in a 1992 publication, researcher Sandra Graham pointed out that_______ are often over represented in psychological studies
What college students

The________ variable is the variable that a researcher manipulates to see if it will cause a change in some other variable
independent

the purpose of_______ is to solve practical problems and improve the quality of life
applied research

A medical researcher studying the brain chemicals and the function of the nervous system would most likely be involved in which field of psychology
Neuroscience

In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the independent variable is called the _______________ group
experimental

Psychologists pursue four broad goals. Which goal is associated with a study that identifies the intelligence scores for a group of children in an elementary gifted and talented program
Description

The first step in the scientific method is to
observe and theorize

Following the APA code of ethics, which of the following statements is true about psychological research that uses animals
discomfort must be minimized

the final step in the scientific method
to apply results to the hypothesis

__________ is the school of psychological thought, practiced by William James, that is concerned with how humans and animals use mental processes in adapting to their environment
Functionalism

Dr. Erosa believes that a child’s school, friendships, and family life may be just as powerful as biology and physiology in affecting a child’s behavior and mental processes, she likely subscribes to what approach
socio cultural

Jakob thinks that observable, measurable behavior is the appropriate subject matter for psychology and that environment is a prominent determinant of behavior. What school of psychology does Jakob belong to
Behaviorism

Chantal wants to understand the cause and effect relationship between hours spent listening to music and intelligence . The only research method that will allow her to identify this cause and effect relationship is the
experimental method

Dr. Davis is not sure the results of her colleagues study are correct so she is going to repeat the study using the same procedures to determine whether the results were a one time phenomenon or the results if a true psychological principle. The scientific name for this process is
Replication

The third step of the SQ3R method is
Read

Research conducted to seek new knowledge and to explore and advance general scientific understanding is
basic research

Which school of psychology believes that observable measurable behavior is the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and that environment is a prominent determinant of behavior
Behaviorism

Placebo effect
The phenomenon that occurs in an experiment when a participants response to a treatment is due to his or her expectations about the treatment rather than to the treatment itself

Placebo
An inert or harmless substance given to the control group in an experiment as a control for the placebo effect

Random assignment
The process of selecting participants for experimental and control groups by using a chance procedure to guarantee that each participants has an equal probability of being assigned to any of the groups; a control for selection bias

selection bias
the assignment of participants to experimental or control groups in such a way that systematic differences among the groups are present at the beginning of the experiment

confounding variables
factors other than the independent variables that are unequal across groups

psychological perspectives
general points of view used for explaining people’s behavior and thinking, whether normal or abnormal

double blind technique
a procedure in which neither the participants nor the experimenters know who is in the experimental and control groups until after the data have been gathered; a control for experimenter bias

Quasi-experiments
comparisons of groups that differ in exposure to a variable of interest that can not be manipulated for ethical or practical reasons

cross cultural research
comparisons of mental processes and behaviors among humans living in different cultures

control group
in an experiment, a group similar to the experimental environment but is not given the treatment; used for purposes of comparison

dependent variable
the factor or condition that is measured at the end of an experiment and is presumed to vary as a result of the manipulations of the independent variables

independent variables
in an experiment, a factor or condition that is deliberately manipulated to determined whether it causes any change in another behavior or condition

participant- related bias
a type of bias in which a study’s participants are not representative of the population to which results will be generalized

experimenter bias
A phenomenon that occurs when a researcher’s preconceived notions or expectations in some way influence participants’ behavior and/or the researcher’s interpretation of experimental results

variable
any condition or factor that can be manipulated, controlled, or measured

casual hypothesis
a prediction about a cause effect relationship between two or more variables

experimental method
the only research method that can be used to identify cause effect relationship between two or more conditions or variables

correlational method
a research method used to establish the degree of relationship (correlation) between two characteristics, events, or behavior.

correlation coefficient
a numerical value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables; ranges from +1.00 (a perfect correlation) to -1.00 (a perfect negative correlation)

representative sample
a sample that mirrors the population of interest; it includes important subgroups in the same proportions as they are found in that population

sample
a part of a population that is studied to reach conclusions about the entire population

population
the entire group of interest to researchers to which they wish to generalize their findings; the group from which a sample is selected

survey
a descriptive research method in which researchers use interviews and/or questionnaires to gather information about the attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors of a group of people

case study
a descriptive research method in which behavior is studied in great depth

laboratory observation
a descriptive research method in which behavior is studied in a laboratory setting

Naturalistic observation
a descriptive research method in which researchers observe and record behavior in its natural setting, without attempting to influence or control it

descriptive research methods
research methods that yield descriptions of behavior

critical thinking
the process of objectively evaluating claims, propositions, and conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from the evidence presented

sociocultural approach
the view that social and cultural factors may be just as powerful as evolutionary and physiological factors in affecting behavior and mental processing and that these factors must be understood when interpreting the behavior of others

neuroscience
an interdisciplinary field that combines the work of psychologists, biologists, biochemists, medical researchers, and others in the study of the structure and function of the nervous system

biological psychology
the school of psychology that looks for links between specific behaviors and equally specific biological processes that often help explain individual differences

evolutionary psychology
the school of psychology that studies how humans behaviors required for survival have adapted in the face of environmental pressures over the long course of evolution

information processing theory
an approach to the study of mental structures and processes that uses the computer as a model for human thinking

cognitive psychology
the school of psychology that sees humans as active participants in their environment studies mental processes such as memory, problem solving, reasoning, decision making, perceptions, language, and other forms of cognition

positive psychology
the scientific study of psychological characteristics that enable individuals and communities to thrive in the face of adversity

humanistic psychology
the school of psychology that focuses on the uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth, and psychological health

psychoanalysis
the term Freud used for both his theory of personality and his therapy for the treatment of psychological disorders; the unconscious is the primary focus of psychoanalytic theory

Behavioralism
The psychology that views observable measurable behavior as the appropriate subject matter for psychology and emphasizes the key role of environment as a determinant of behavior

Functionalism
An early school of psychology that was concerned with how humans and animals use mental processes in adapting to their environment

Structuralism
the first formal school of thought in psychology; aimed at analyzing the basic elements, or structure, of conscious mental experience

Applied research
research conducted specifically to solve practical problems and improve the quality of life

basic research
research conducted to seek new knowledge and to explore and advance general scientific understanding

replication
the process of repeating a study to verify research findings

hypothesis
a testable prediction about the conditions under which a particular behavior or mental process may occur

theory
a general principle or set of principles proposed to explain how a number of separate facts are related

scientific method
The orderly, systematic procedures that researchers follow as they identify a research problem, design a study to investigate the problem, collect and analyze data, draw conclusions, and communicate their findings

psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes