Chapter 06

Psychologists use the term ___________ to refer to a relatively permanent change in behavior resulting from experience.
learning
____________ is credited with laying the foundation for the study of classical conditioning in psychology.
Pavlov
______________ is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response.
Classical conditioning
_____________ is learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences.
Operant conditioning
The root of operant conditioning may be traced to ____________’s early studies of hungry cats learning to escape from cages.
Thorndike
The most influential psychologist to study operant conditioning was:
Skinner.
The process of teaching complex behavior by reinforcing ever closer approximations of the desired behavior is called:
shaping.
Learning in which a new behavior is acquired but is not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it is known as ____________ learning.
latent
Bandura’s “Bobo doll” experiments were intended to demonstrate:
observational learning.
According to the text, the average child in the U.S. has viewed more than ___________ murders on network TV by the time he or she graduates from elementary school.
8,000