Chapt 1 – Psych

Psychology’s intellectual parents are the disciplines of
a. physics and physiology.
b. philosophy and physiology.
c. chemistry and physics.
d. philosophy and chemistry.

Wundt defined psychology as
a. the scientific study of behavior.
b. the scientific study of the unconscious.
c. the scientific study of the brain.
d. the scientific study of conscious experience.

The school of psychology that focused on identifying and examining the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensations, feelings, and images, was
a. humanism.
b. behaviorism.
c. structuralism.
d. functionalism.

In an attempt to learn something about his conscious experience, William looked at an abstract painting and wrote down all of his impressions as they came to him. This technique is called
a. introspection.
b. retrospection.
c. empiricism.
d. psychoanalysis.

Dr. Smythe believes that in order to fully understand complex processes, such as taste, it is necessary to understand the purpose that taste plays in human adaptation, not the elementary components that combine to produce taste sensations. Dr. Smythe’s views are MOST consistent with
a. the behaviorist approach to psychology.
b. the functionalist approach to psychology.
c. the structuralist approach to psychology.
d. the psychoanalytic approach to psychology.

The term used by William James to describe a continuous flow of thoughts was
a. existential awareness.
b. stream of consciousness.
c. transcendental meditation.
d. phenomenological flow.

The first woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Association was
a. Mary Calkins.
b. Margaret Washburn.
c. Leta Hollingworth.
d. Anna Freud.

Functionalism was founded by
a. John Watson.
b. Sigmund Freud.
c. William James.
d. Wilhelm Wundt.

The notion that unconscious motivations can influence our overt behavior is MOST consistent with the views of
a. Carl Rogers.
b. Wilhelm Wundt.
c. B.F. Skinner.
d. Sigmund Freud.

Sigmund Freud developed an innovative procedure for treating people with psychological problems, which he called
a. behavior modification.
b. primal therapy.
c. psychoanalysis.
d. rational-emotive therapy.

Freud concluded that psychological disturbances are largely caused by
a. unrealistic demands from family and friends.
b. personal conflicts existing at an unconscious level.
c. genetic predispositions to behave in a particular way.
d. conflicts between conscious desires and environmental constraints.

Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by
a. studying observable behavior.
b. analyzing conscious experience into its basic elements.
c. focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
d. studying the function or purpose of consciousness.

The psychologist who proposed that the study of consciousness should be replaced by the study of behavior was
a. John B. Watson.
b. Abraham Maslow.
c. G. Stanley Hall.
d. Sigmund Freud.

Strict behaviorists would be MOST sympathetic to which one of the following statements?
a. Human behavior is primarily caused by inherited factors.
b. Human behavior is primarily caused by environmental factors. c. Human behavior is primarily caused by equal contributions of inherited and environmental factors.
d. No one really knows what the primary causes for human behavior are.

Alison believes that individuals learn to be either aggressive or nonaggressive as a result of the experiences they have. Alison’s views are MOST consistent with the
a. behaviorist view of psychology.
b. structuralist view of psychology.
c. functionalist view of psychology.
d. psychoanalytic view of psychology.

Christine is a psychologist who conducts research on the effects of reward on maze learning in rats. Christine would MOST likely be considered a
a. behaviorist.
b. structuralist.
c. psychoanalyst.
d. Gestalt psychologist.

The fact that behaviors can be observed and thoughts and feelings cannot is the basis of
a. psychoanalysis.
b. functionalism.
c. structuralism.
d. behaviorism.

The notion that all behavior is fully governed by external stimuli is MOST consistent with
a. behaviorism.
b. humanism.
c. structuralism.
d. functionalism.

The psychologist who took the position that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes was
a. Sigmund Freud.
b. B.F. Skinner.
c. Carl Rogers.
d. Abraham Maslow.

Janet trained her dog to sit on command by following this behavior with a reward of a dog biscuit and praise. Janet used the principles of
a. behaviorism.
b. humanism.
c. psychoanalysis.
d. functionalism.

Which of the following psychologists would have been MOST likely to assert that “free will is an illusion”?
a. Abraham Maslow
b. B.F. Skinner
c. Wilhelm Wundt
d. Carl Rogers

Which of the following groups of psychologists would be MOST likely to focus on individual uniqueness, freedom, and potential for growth as a person?
a. Behaviorists
b. Psychoanalysts
c. Humanists
d. Gestalt psychologists

The theoretical viewpoint that is MOST closely associated with Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow is
a. cognitive approach.
b. humanism.
c. structuralism.
d. biological approach.

Humanists believe that people’s behavior is governed by
a. their self-concepts.
b. unconscious sexual urges.
c. the outcomes of their responses.
d. biochemical processes.

Imagine that the editor of your local newspaper writes a column supporting a reduction in government intervention with a transfer of more rights to individual citizens. The editor bases this argument on the assumption that people are rational beings who will fulfill their maximum potential as long as others do not infringe on their basic human needs. This editor’s views reflect those seen in
a. the evolutionary perspective.
b. the humanistic perspective.
c. the psychodynamic perspective.
d. the behavioral perspective.

A clinical psychologist would probably be MOST interested in
a. determining how small groups make decisions.
b. studying facial expressions of emotion.
c. figuring out the most effective ways of treating anxiety.
d. studying the nature of optical illusions.

The major event that influenced the development of psychology as a profession was
a. World War I.
b. the Great Depression of the 1930s.
c. World War II.
d. the Cold War of the 1950s.

The term that refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge is
a. cognition.
b. pedagogy.
c. empiricism.
d. introspection.

The approach that contends psychology must study internal mental events in order to fully understand behavior is
a. behaviorism.
b. cognitive psychology.
c. evolutionary psychology.
d. humanism.

Annabel wants to investigate differences in the way language is processed by the brain hemispheres in individuals from different cultures. If Annabel could work with a psychologist who has made a significant contribution in this area of research, she would MOST likely choose to work with
a. Carl Rogers.
b. Roger Sperry.
c. John B. Watson.
d. Alfred Adler.

The cognitive perspective contends that to fully understand human behavior, psychologists need to focus attention on
a. the role of the unconscious.
b. internal mental events.
c. the interrelations among the mind, body, and behavior.
d. the adaptive value of a behavior.

Professor Vasquez believes that nearly all psychological disorders can ultimately be traced to abnormalities in brain chemistry. Professor Vasquez’s beliefs are MOST consistent with the
a. behavioral perspective.
b. cognitive perspective.
c. biological perspective.
d. humanistic perspective.

The approach that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations is
a. clinical psychology.
b. cognitive psychology.
c. evolutionary psychology.
d. physiological psychology.

The basic premise of evolutionary psychology is that natural selection favors behaviors that enhance organisms’ success in
a. establishing a territory.
b. locating a source of food.
c. passing on their genes to the next generation.
d. aggressive interactions with members of other species.

The individual MOST closely associated with the recent development of positive psychology is
a. David Buss.
b. Roger Sperry.
c. James Olds.
d. Martin Seligman.

The viewpoint in psychology that uses theory and research to understand the adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence is known as
a. physiological psychology.
b. evolutionary psychology.
c. positive psychology.
d. applied psychology.

Which of the following is NOT included in the text’s definition of psychology?
a. Psychology is a profession that solves practical problems
b. Psychology studies behavior including physiological and cognitive processes
c. Psychology studies primarily the unconscious mind
d. Psychology is a science

If you were having problems with severe depression, the type of psychologist that would be the greatest help to you would be
a. a developmental psychologist.
b. a social psychologist.
c. a clinical psychologist.
d. an experimental psychologist.

A psychologist who is interested in the psychological effect of aging would MOST likely specialize in
a. developmental psychology.
b. experimental psychology.
c. cognitive psychology.
d. psychometrics.

A psychologist who studies information processing and decision-making would probably be considered a
a. physiological psychologist.
b. developmental psychologist.
c. social psychologist.
d. cognitive psychologist.

Dr. Somers studies psychological topics such as attitude formation and change and how groups influence people’s behavior. Which of the following BEST categorizes Dr. Somers’ research specialization?
a. Experimental psychology
b. Personality psychology
c. Psychometrics
d. Social psychology

Which of the following areas of research in psychology is concerned with assessing individual differences, developing tests, and developing new statistical techniques?
a. social psychology
b. psychometrics
c. cognitive psychology
d. physiological psychology

The most widely practiced professional specialty in psychology is
a. clinical psychology.
b. experimental psychology.
c. educational and school psychology.
d. industrial/organizational psychology.

Which of the following is a medical doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental disorders?
a. a clinical psychologist
b. a counseling psychologist
c. a psychiatrist
d. a physiological psychologist

Empiricism means that knowledge should be acquired through
a. logical reasoning.
b. common sense.
c. historical tradition.
d. direct observation.

A system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations is called
a. a theory.
b. an empirical set.
c. a hypothesis.
d. a sociohistorical context.

One psychologist explains a phobia in terms of learning principles whereas another looks to the unconscious for an explanation. Given this scenario, which of the following conclusions is MOST accurate?
a. The two psychologists are using different theoretical perspectives.
b. Only one of the two psychologists can be correct.
c. Insufficient data have been collected to support either explanation.
d. The two psychologists are probably using different sociohistorical contexts.

The civil rights movement and the women’s movement raised concerns about whether basic psychological principles could be applied to groups other than white males. Consequently, psychologists began to select samples of subjects that were more diverse for research studies. This change in practice illustrates the idea that
a. behavior is determined by multiple causes.
b. motives and expectations can color our experiences.
c. science evolves in a sociohistorical context.
d. theoretical diversity is an important component in science.

A scientist uses ____ to explain a set of observations.
a. a theory
b. common sense
c. introspection
d. empiricism

The text’s unifying theme that “psychology is theoretically diverse” implies that
a. psychology has not, as yet, focused on empirical observations. b. there are often several ways to interpret a set of observations.
c. psychology focuses on unrelated observations.
d. psychology is failing in the goal of being a science

Widely shared customs, beliefs, values, and norms refer to which of the following?
a. ideographic nature
b. culture
c. ontogeny
d. phylogeny

Dr. Escher believes that individuals may inherit a predisposition for some psychological disorders, but that the disorders will not actually develop unless there is some stressful event that acts as a trigger. Dr. Escher’s views reflect the underlying theme that
a. genetic factors and experience interact to shape behavior.
b. our cultural backgrounds exert a considerable influence over our behavior.
c. motives and expectations can color our experiences.
d. theoretical diversity is an important component in science.

The text’s unifying theme that “heredity and environment jointly influence behavior” is often referred to as describing the
a. nature versus nurture issue.
b. nurture versus nature issue.
c. biological versus psychological issue.
d. psychological versus biological issue.

Which of the following is NOT listed in the textbook as an effective study technique?
a. Set up a schedule for studying.
b. Study in a place where distractions are minimal.
c. Concentrate your study time immediately before an exam.
d. Break major assignments down into smaller component tasks.

The idea that you should reward yourself for achieving study goals is based on the concept of
a. empiricism.
b. genetic predisposition.
c. unconscious motivation.
d. behavior modification.