Chap 7 & 8

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evidence
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information gathered from credible research sources that helps a speaker support his or her claims
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credibility
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an audiences perception that a speaker is well prepared and qualified to speak on his or her topic. Trustworthiness, dynamism, and goodwill are also elements of speaker’s credibility
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research plan
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a strategy for finding and keeping track of information in books, periodicals, Web sites, and other sources a speaker might use to prepare a presentation.
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research objective
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the goal one needs to accomplish with research
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research librarian
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a career professional hired to assist students and faculty with their research
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keyword
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a word or term related to a topic, including synonyms of the word. Keywords are often used in online or database searches
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citation
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a complete record of the source for a piece of evidence, including author, date, and where the evidence can be found
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atlas
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a reference work that provides maps, charts, and tables relating to different geographic regions
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credible source
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a source that can be reasonably trusted to be accurate and objective
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yearbook
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a reference work that is updated annually and contains statistics and other facts about social, political, and economic topics
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expertise
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the possession of knowledge necessary to offer reliable facts or opinions about the topic in question
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internet
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a popular research tool connecting computers around the world containing millions of Web sites and other resources of varying quality maintained by individuals, businesses, and organizations.
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objectivity
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a quality of credible sources by which they avoid bias— that is, prejudice or partisanship
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World Wide Web
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an electronic, easily navigable global collection of text, graphics, audio, and video accessed through the internet. A substantially more extensive source of information than any library print collection, but the credibility of the sources you find must be carefully assessed
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observational capacity
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a source’s ability to witness a situation for himself or herself, thus increasing the source’s reliability
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Web site
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a group of one or more pages of personal, commercial, nonprofit, or other information organized within the World Wide Wed and hosted on the internet
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recency
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a quality of credible sources that holds that because of our rapidly changing world, newer evidence is generally more reliable than older evidence
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top-level domain
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the designation at the end of a web address that indicates the site sponsor’s affiliation: commercial (.com) , nonprofit (.org), educational (.edu), government (.gov/.uk) , other organizations (.net). Based on the top level domain alone, it cannot be determined whether an online source is credible. The credibility of the person or organization that created the site must be assessed.
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periodical
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a weekly, monthly, quarterly, or annual publication, including newspapers, magazines, and scholarly journals
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search engine
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a specialized online program that allows users to conduct keyword searches and then provides links to relevant Web pages. Examples include google, yahoo, bing, as
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peer review
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the act of subjecting articles submitted to a scholarly journal to critical readings by other experts in a particular field
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metasearch engine
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a type of search engine that searches with several different search engines at once
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full-text source
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the complete text of an article linked within an online periodical index
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advanced search
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provides commands for making Web searches more precise
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abstract
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a summary of an article’s contents, often included in indexes
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hybrid search engine
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a specialized online program combining a search engine and web directory
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encyclopedia
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a reference work that offers relatively brief entries providing background information on a wide range of alphabetized topics
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invisible Web
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online information, sometimes password protects, that cannot be easily accessed using typical search engines. Search tools that specialize in finding information on the invisible web include Complete Planet, GoshMe, Library Spot, and OAIster
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dictionary
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a reference work that offers definitions, pronunciation guides, and sometimes etymologies for words
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paraphrasing
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putting someone else’s ideas into one’s own words and giving appropriate credit to the original source
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quotation book
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a reference work offering famous or notable quotations on a variety of subjects
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power wording
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the unethical practice of paraphrasing evidence in a better way that better supports one’s own claim but misrepresents a source’s point of view
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supporting materials
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examples, definitions, testimony, and statistics that support or illustrate a speaker’s main points
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example
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a sample or instance that supports or illustrates a general claim
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brief example
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a single sentence or an otherwise short point of an instance that supports or illustrates a more general claim
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extended example
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a detailed narrative that serves as a sample or instance that supports or illustrates a general claim
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dictionary definition
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a type of support that provides the meaning of a term as presented in general or specialized dictionary.
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expert definition
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a type of support that provides the meaning of a term as presented by a person who is a credible source of information on a particular topic
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etymological definition
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a type of support that explains the linguistic origin of a term or word–useful when the origin is interesting or will help the audience understand the word
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functional definition
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a type of support that explains how something is used or what is does
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testimony
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a type of support consisting of statements provided by other people, the source of these statements often being researched in a library, found online, or recorded in an interview
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expert testimony
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a type of support consisting of statements made by a credible sources who have professional or other in-depth knowledge of a topic
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lay testimony
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a type of support consisting of statements made by persons with no special expertise in the subject they are discussing
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statistics
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numerical data that help a speaker quantify points and help an audience understand how often a given situation occurs
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narrative
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a story a speaker tells to share information and capture an audience’s attention. As used in informative speeches, the story can be a personal remembrance, a humorous anecdote, or a serious account of an event that happened in someone else’s life.
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analogy
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a comparison based on similarities between two phenomena– one that is familiar to an audience and one that is less familiar— that helps listeners use their existing knowledge to absorb new information
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literal analogy
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an analogy in which two entities in the same category are being compared
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figurative analogy
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an analogy in which the two entities being compared are not in the same category
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What are two key benefits of doing research for your speech?
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It allows you to gather evidence about your topic so you are knowledgeable about it and that you can use to convince your audience to believe with the credible sources, etc. Also you gain credibility as a speaker. Audience members will see that you are well prepared and more likely to know what you are talking about
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Outline the three main steps involved in creating a research plan.
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Inventory Your Research Needs: after deciding your research objectives make a list of the subject matter you need to research and the questions you need to answer. Find the Sources you Need: develop a list of potential research sources by researching library indexes, searching on the internet, and considering credible people to interview. Make a list of keywords and synonyms of those words Keep Track of your Sources: Make sure to keep citations of your sources for all research you used in a good fashion
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Why is it important to copy down complete citation information for a source at the time you obtain it?
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It is important because students often forget and think that the URL at the bottom of the page is enough. You need everything including the authors name, his or her credentials, and the date of the information.
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What four key characteristics determine a source’s credibility?
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Expertise Objectivity Observational Capacity Recency
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what advantages do libraries offer over the internet?
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Libraries allow you access to strong evidence and credible sources that are not available on Web sites.
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describe the advantages and disadvantages of internet research.
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Advantages: Allows you convenient access to information on nearly any topic & offers speed– enabling you to track down a news report or a research finding almost instantly from anywhere in the world. And puts an immense volume of information at our fingertips Disadvantages: Books may not be available online from credible sources, may cost money. Cannot assume that information online is credible. Anyone can create a website or blog about a topic!
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Name four different internet search tools, and describe the differences among them.
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Explain the steps involved in conducting a useful interview
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Prepare your interview by figuring out what you want to get out of the interview. Ex: questions you will ask, etc. Also figure out who you will interview and who is the best to interview for your topic Set up your interview by contacting the person you wish to interview and explain what you are doing it for (your speech) and describe what you are hoping to get our of the interview Plan our Interview Questions Conduct the Interview by arriving on time and dress professionally. Start with easy questions, stay focused, maintain eye contact, be open to new information, listen carefully, and tape the interview Evaluate your Notes: right after check to make sure you wrote everything down you needed to help you with your speech
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What is the proper way to cite evidence in a speech outline and during a speech?
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Document all your sources and provide a complete citation for each one in your speech outline Cite each source in your speech at the time you present evidence
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Name four purposes of using supporting materials
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Building Audience Interest Enhancing Audience Understanding Winning Audience Agreement Evoking Audience Emotion
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Name six types of supporting materials. Provide an example of each type of supporting material that you could use in a speech on the topic of your choice
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Example – brief example Definition – dictionary definition Testimony – expert testimony Statistics- #’s/data about a topic Narratives – a story about something relating to the topic
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Why is it important to select supporting materials that are backed by credible evidence?
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It is important because materials will be more believable and convincing
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Name four or more guidelines for using supporting materials in a speech.
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Choose the Most Credible Proof Use a Variety of Supporting Materials Appeal to Different Learning Styles Avoid Long Lists Consider Your Audience Respect the Available Time

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