CH1

sociology
sociology is the study of human society

sociological imagination
the ability to see the connection between personal experience and the larger forces of history

social institution
a complex group of interdependent positions that together perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time

verstehen
german for understanding from Max Weber and is the basis of interpretive sociology in which researchers imagine themselves experiencing the life positions of the social actors…to truly understand why people act the way they do.

anomie
too little social regulation; normlessness
社会的価値観の崩壊による混沌とした状態

positivist sociology
a strain within sociology that believes the social world can be described and predicted by certain observable relationships

double consciousness
two behavioral scripts; one for moving through the world/the other incorporating the external opinions of prejudiced onlookers, which are constantly maintained by African Americans

functionalism
the theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist in order to provide some significant function to keep society running for necessary

conflict theory
the idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic, animating force of social change and society in general.

symbolic interactionism (?)
a micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions from the basic motivations behind people’s action. focus on how face to face interactions create the social world

postmodernism (?)
a condition characterised by a questioning of the notion of progress and history, the replacement of narrative within pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting from disjointed affiliations. 機能性・合理性を追求した近代建築を批判的にとらえ,古典様式の引用や装飾の多用など,自由な様式や造形を求める建築デザインの潮流。1970年代半ばに提唱された。

social construction (?)
an entity that exists because people behave as if it exists and whose existence is perpetuated as people and social institutions act in accordance with the widely agreed-upon formal rules or informal norms of behavior associated with that entity.

midrange theory
a theory that attempts to predict how certain social institutions tend to function

microsociology
seeks to understand local interactional contexts

macrosociology
Macrosociology is an approach to sociology which emphasizes the analysis of social systems and populations on a large scale, at the level of social structure, and often at a necessarily high level of theoretical abstraction.

According to Randall Collins’s (1979) research, the expansion of higher education is:
a result of credentialism and expenditures on formal education.

“If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences” is the theory of which of the following Chicago School theorists?
W. I. Thomas

In the book How to Observe Morals and Manners, the institution of marriage is criticized as:
based on an assumption of the inferiority of women.

Which of the following founders of sociology is known, in part, for his writings providing the theoretical foundation of Communism?
Karl Marx

The intended purpose of desegregation of schools in the 1950s was to make education equal for everyone. What was not intended was that many racial minority teachers and principals lost their jobs. This unintended purpose was called a(n) ____________ function by functionalist theorist Talcott Parsons.
latent

Who wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism?
Max Weber

Which of the following is defined as a complex group of interdependent positions that together perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time?
a social institution

Which of the following is the study of social meanings that emphasizes subjectivity in understanding human behavior?
interpretive sociology

In sociology’s “cousin,” psychology, the focus is on the individual. In sociology, the focus is above and beyond the individual, on group-level dynamics and social structures. This is known as:
supra-individual

According to Comte, positivism arose out of a need to make ____________ sense of the social order in a time of declining religious authority.
moral

Native Americans may see the history of the United States differently than white Europeans. Which theory would argue that there is not a unifying “grand narrative” of history because history itself is not objective, but rather socially constructed?
postmodernism

According to Suicide, one of the main social forces leading to suicide is a sense of normlessness that results from drastic changes in society. This normlessness was called:
anomie

Which of the following focuses its analyses on face-to-face encounters and interactions?
microsocioogy

Which of the following was the first African American to receive a PhD from Harvard University?
W. E. B. Du Bois

Economists tend to see humans as ____________, but sociologists would tend to include ____________.
rational actors; emotional motivations

Which of the following argues that the organizing narratives of history are over, and that progress has led to a condition where there are no shared, objective meanings?
postmodernism

A white woman goes into an upscale shop to look at clothes. She is excited to see that there is a sale and gathers a huge pile of clothes to take into the dressing room. An African American woman goes into the store and is also excited about the sale but hesitates to take too many clothes into the dressing room because she is afraid the staff will think she might shoplift.
W. E. B. Du Bois would say that the African American woman has:
a double consciousness

The “grand narrative” that constitutes a social identity:
is nothing more than a sum of individual stories told between pairs of individuals.

Which early U.S. sociologist told other sociologists in the Chicago School to “go out and get the seats of [their] pants dirty in real research”?
Robert Park

As defined by C. Wright Mills, which of the following “enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society”?
sociological imagination

Which of the three historical epistemological stages of human society did Comte explain was highlighted by Enlightenment thinking such as Rousseau’s, Mill’s, and Hobbes’s beliefs in biological causes for human behavior?
the metaphysical stage

Which of the following lists the individuals known as “the founding fathers of the sociological discipline”?
Durkheim, Marx, and Weber

Who criticized Marx for focusing exclusively on economics and social class as explanations for human behavior and advocated sociological analyses that allowed for multiple influences?
Max Weber

Which area within the discipline of anthropology is most similar to sociology?
cultural anthropology

While historians are more likely to focus on the unique case, sociologists would more likely to focus on:
commonalities

A family, as a group of people living together and sharing individual stories, makes up a ____________ institution.
social

To truly understand why people act the way they do, we must understand the meanings they attach to their behaviors. Max Weber called this:
Verstehen

Max Weber would say we need to understand from their perspective, not from our own, why many generations of Chinese sleep together in rural China. He called this:
Verstehen

Who was the author of the first methods book in the discipline of sociology?
Harriet Martineau

The basic premise of the Chicago School was that human behaviors and personalities are shaped by social and physical environments. This is known as:
social ecology
ドラッカーは、自らを社会生態学者と規定する。「自然生態学が生物の環境を研究するように、社会生態学は、人間によってつくられた人間の環境に関心をもつ」という。

Erving Goffman used the language of theater to describe how people present themselves in everyday social life. This is known as:
dramaturgical theory

Robert Merton’s modern sociological theory focused on attempting to predict how certain social institutions function between microsociology and macrosociology. This is known as:
midrange theory

According to your textbook’s author, Chicago School researcher Louis Wirth’s essay “Urbanism as a Way of Life” might be classified as which of the following today?
cultural sociology

George H. Mead described how the “self ” internalizes the views of society as a whole, transcending the individual and particular situations. He calls this larger society:

Which of the three historical epistemological stages of human society did Comte claim was characterized by the development of social physics to explain human behavior?
the scientific stage

Manifest
Latent
Dysfunction
Manifest functions are conscious, deliberate and beneficial, the latent ones the unconscious, unintended and beneficial, and dysfunctions are unconscious, unintended and harmful. While functions are intended (manifest) or unintended (latent), and have a positive effect on society, dysfunctions are unintended or unrecognized (latent) and have a negative effect on society.

Which feminist sociologist wrote Sex, Gender, and Society (1972), which argued that much of what we attribute to biological sex differences can actually be traced to learned behaviors and socialization?
Ann Oakley

Which of the following sociologists developed the theory of positivism?
Auguste Comte

Sociologists and economists have shown that the benefits of higher education include higher median incomes for college graduates. This is known as:
the returns to schooling

The functionalist paradigm went largely unchallenged in the United States until about the 1950s. C. Wright Mills criticized Talcott Parsons for:
supporting the dominant class structure and the inequalities associated with it.

Feeling discomfort about rural Chinese society, where many generations of a family sleep in the same bed, is known as:
xenophobia

Sociology is the study of:

The Division of Labor in Society was the first of many sociological contributions from:
Émile Durkheim.

Although positivism originated with Auguste Comte, the person who is often considered to be the first practitioner of positivism is:
Émile Durkheim.

Charles H. Cooley argued that the “self ” emerges from how an individual interacts with others and then interprets those interactions. He calls this:
the looking glass self.

Karl Marx would argue that the types of social institutions in a society were the result of the economic makeup of that society. Max Weber, however, argued that:
there are multiple influences (e.g., religion) on how social institutions are created.

Explaining unique cases is the focus of most historians, whereas the comparative method is the staple of the sociologist. This comparative method is also known as
the nomothetic approach

Which of the three historical epistemological stages did Comte argue would explain human society by identifying the “laws” that governed human behavior?
the scientific stage

Which of the following sociologists applied Durkheim’s theory of anomie to explain crime rates among African Americans after the abolition of slavery in the United States?
W. E. B. Du Bois

The author of your text states that the most age-segregated social institution in our society is a:
four-year college

What do symbolic interactionists study?
shared meaning

Which modern sociological theory examines how power relationships are defined, shaped, and reproduced on the basis of gender differences?
Feminism

Each of the following is known as one of the three epistemological stages of human society, as explained by Comte, EXCEPT:
the postscientific stage

Two words that might describe the difference between conflict theory and functionalism are:
competition versus consensus

The examination of human behavior within a rational actor model is the focus of which of the following “cousins” of sociology?
economics

Postmodern sociologists argue that all so-called objective phenomena are open to debate because all meaning is subjective. Thus, to postmodernists, all “facts” are really:
social constructs

Chicago was a good place to study urbanism using more of a community-based approach (a.k.a. social ecology). Why?
The population was experiencing rapid growth due to foreign immigration and the influx of African Americans from the rural South.

George H. Mead described how the “self ” internalizes the views of society as a whole, transcending the individual and particular situations. He calls this larger society:
the generalized other.

According to the theory of social solidarity, the division of labor in a society helps to determine:
the way social cohesion among individuals is maintained.

Positivism is best defined as the:
idea that we can scientifically and logically study social institutions and the individuals within them.