Ch. 9 PEERS, ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS, AND LIFE STYLES

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c
answer

Individuals who are about the same age or maturity level are called A) friends. B) colleagues. C) peers. D) classmates.
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c?
answer

Which of the following statements about peer contexts is NOT true? A) Peer contexts include type of peer and the situation or location where the interaction takes place. B) Adolescents encounter different messages from different peers. C) Susceptibility to peer pressure has to do with the setting of the peer interaction. D) Susceptibility to peer pressure has to do with parental monitoring of adolescents and peers.
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b
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Which of the following is NOT a positive aspect of peer relationships? A) exploring principles of fairness and justice by working through disagreements with peers B) feeling hostile or lonely because of the hurt of being rejected by peers C) learning to be sensitive partners in intimate relationships by forging close friendships with selected peers D) learning to be keen observers of peers’ interests in order to integrate into the peer group
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c
answer

Being rejected or overlooked by peers can lead some adolescents to A) become closer to their parents. B) be vulnerable to cult recruiters. C) feel lonely or hostile. D) become closer to their siblings.
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b
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Deviant peer relations have been linked to all of the following EXCEPT A) substance abuse. B) eating disorders. C) delinquent behavior. D) depression.
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c
answer

Cheri has a secure attachment to her parents. What might this attachment mean to her attachment to her peers? A) She will very likely be insecurely attached to her peers. B) She will very likely be securely attached to her peers. C) The parent-adolescent attachment pattern is not strongly indicative of the adolescent peer relationship. D) There is no correlation at all between attachment to parents and attachment to peers.
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c
answer

A recent study by Mitchell Prinstein and colleagues revealed that adolescents who have _____ are most likely to conform to peers. A) high self-esteem B) low social anxiety C) an uncertain social identity D) none of these
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a
answer

Which of the following statements regarding conformity to peer pressure has recent research found to be TRUE? A) Social identity uncertainly is linked to peer conformity. B) Social identity uncertainty decreases in times of school transition. C) Social identity uncertainly decreases in time of family transitions. D) Peers are most likely to conform to peers whom they perceive to be at the same level of social status.
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a
answer

Which of the following statements about popular children is TRUE? A) Popular children have social skills that contribute to their being well-liked. B) Popular children are usually conceited. C) Popular children often have difficulty communicating with their peers. D) Popular children are often described as \”shy\” by their peers.
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c
answer

Brenda listens carefully to her friends, controls her own negative emotions, and is self confident. Brenda is most likely classified as a(n) _____ child. A) controversial B) average C) popular D) neglected
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a
answer

Alex is described as \”shy\” by his peers; he has a low rate of interaction with peers. Alex is likely to be classified as a(n) _____ child. A) neglected B) rejected C) average D) controversial
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c
answer

The best predictor of whether rejected children engage in delinquent behavior or drop out of school later, during adolescence is A) low rates of interactions with their peers. B) aggression towards peers in junior high school. C) aggression towards peers in elementary school. D) use of alcohol in ninth grade.
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b
answer

About what percentage of rejected children are actually shy, rather than aggressive? A) 5 to 8 B) 10 to 20 C) 25 to 30 D) 45 to 50
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d
answer

Which of the following actions is most likely to increase the probability that an adolescent will be popular? A) giving out reinforcements to peers B) comforting a friend C) sharing private information with a friend D) all of these
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c
answer

Children who have peer-related difficulties have been found to A) come from lower socioeconomic status homes. B) be overweight or obese. C) lack social cognitive skills. D) all of these
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b
answer

Planning ahead, generating multiple solutions to hypothetical problems, and evaluating physically aggressive responses negatively are all A) emotional regulation skills. B) social cognitive skills. C) self-efficacy skills. D) prosocial skills.
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b
answer

Tony has not adjusted well to the peer group at his new school. When another boy accidentally bumps into Tony at a school dance, Tony will be MOST likely to A) ignore the bump and continue talking to the chaperone who has befriended him. B) aggressively attack the other boy because he assumes that he was bumped on purpose. C) verbally lash out, but he won’t be physically aggressive. D) ask those around him if he was bumped on purpose.
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c
answer

According to Kenneth Dodge, the first step in processing information about our social world is A) interpreting social cues. B) searching for an appropriate response. C) decoding social cues. D) selecting an appropriate response.
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d
answer

Yvonne’s friend tells her that her new sweater is \”like an old-lady sweater—not cool.\” Yvonne is angry, but she doesn’t explode. She says, \”I like it,\” and walks into her class. Yvonne is demonstrating A) nonassertive behavior. B) assertive behavior. C) emotional blunting. D) emotional self-regulation.
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a
answer

Conglomerate strategies are A) the use of multiple techniques to improve adolescents’ social skills. B) also known as brainstorming. C) the most effective kinds of problem-solving skills. D) a team approach to teaching social sciences.
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d
answer

James is actively disliked by his peers. He seems to have no idea how to enter a conversation with others; he frequently barges in and starts talking about an entirely different topic. Which of the following conglomerate strategies might assist James to be more accepted by his peers? A) Offer comments about the interests of the peer group. B) Listen quietly and slowly ease into a conversation. C) Don’t try to change the dynamics of the group. D) All of these strategies could help James.
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b
answer

Mrs. Brice has several adolescents in her class who are clearly regarded as \”weird\” by their peers. In order to change the attitude of the majority group toward these few students, Mrs. Brice implements a strategy in which A) the whole class undergoes social-skills training. B) the whole class works together on a common goal of organizing a food drive. C) the outcast students are paired with sympathetic classmates in hopes of raising their popularity. D) none of these happens.
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d
answer

Providing a friend with amusement is a function of friendship called A) ego support. B) social comparison. C) companionship. D) stimulation.
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b
answer

Rosemary encourages her friend Meredith to try harder in her biology class. Rosemary tells Meredith that she can get a good grade and offers to give her feedback on her reports. Which function of friendship is Rosemary providing for Meredith? A) intimacy/affection B) ego support C) stimulation D) social comparison
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b
answer

Which of the following is NOT one of the basic social needs identified by Harry Stack Sullivan? A) need for secure attachment B) need for competitive companionship C) need for intimacy D) need for social acceptance
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c
answer

Which of the basic social needs identified by Sullivan intensifies in early adolescence? A) the need for a secure attachment B) the need for playful companionship C) the need for intimacy D) the need for sexual relations
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b
answer

Which of the following statements about adolescent friendships is NOT true? A) Adolescents, more than children, have to learn more complex skills to maintain friendships. B) Children have more intimate friendships than adolescents. C) In adolescence, friendships provide a source of support. D) In adolescence, friends act more as confidants.
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a
answer

Which of the following statements regarding the quality of adolescent friendships is TRUE? A) Conflict-ridden friendships are developmentally disadvantageous. B) Poor-quality friendships are better than no friendships at all. C) It is more important to consider the number of friendships than the quality of the friendships. D) Most adolescents have similar types of problems.
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a
answer

Tara’s friends are in honors courses, and they all have high grade-point averages. It is likely that Tara A) also has positive achievement in school. B) suffers anxiety trying to compete with her friends for grades. C) turns her attention to sports, rather than academics. D) does none of these.
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b
answer

A high degree of similarity between friends is known as A) hemophilia. B) homophily. C) homophobia. D) intimacy.
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b
answer

Chronic loneliness has been linked to A) impaired cognition. B) impaired physical health. C) poor grades. D) stealing.
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b
answer

Which of the following statements regarding child and adolescent groups is NOT true? A) Adolescent groups are more mixed or heterogeneous than children’s groups. B) Opposite-sex participation in social groups decreases in adolescence. C) Adolescent groups are more formalized than children’s groups. D) Rules are more well-defined in adolescent groups than in children’s groups.
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c
answer

The average number of individuals in a clique is A) 10 to 12. B) 15. C) 5 to 6. D) 3 to 5.
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d
answer

Which of the following statements regarding adolescent crowds is TRUE? A) Crowds are larger than cliques. B) Crowds are less personal than cliques. C) Crowds may or may not spend much time together. D) All of these are true.
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b
answer

Reputation-based crowds often appear first during A) late childhood. B) early adolescence. C) late adolescence. D) emerging adulthood.
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a
answer

Gini is very active in her local chapter of Young Libertarians. Compared to her counterparts who do not participate in youth groups, Gini is more likely to A) have higher self-esteem. B) be more radical. C) take more history and political science courses in school. D) take part in political demonstrations.
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b
answer

Recent research found that vulnerable youth who participate in positive extracurricular activities in high school were more likely than non-participants to A) enter the military. B) enroll in college. C) volunteer in their communities as adults. D) do none of these.
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c
answer

Boys are more likely than girls to do all of the following EXCEPT A) participate in organized sports. B) engage in risk-taking. C) associate in small groups. D) engage in \”collaborative discourse.\”
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c
answer

Megan has a problem with her boyfriend’s intense jealousy. She and her friends talk constantly about her problem, focusing on nothing else. According to research, this co-rumination is likely to result in A) resolution of the problem for Megan. B) decrease in positive friendship quality with her friends. C) an increase in depressive symptoms for Megan. D) all of these.
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d
answer

Janet dates Ryan primarily because he is popular and good-looking. Which of the following functions of dating does this fulfill for Janet? A) mate selection B) socialization C) recreation D) status
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c
answer

The average age of the initial same-sex activity for females is A) 10 to 14. B) 18 to 22. C) 14 to 18. D) 12 to 16.
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b
answer

The average age of initial same-sex activity for males is A) 11 to 13. B) 13 to 15. C) 15 to 17. D) 17 to 19.
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a
answer

Lydia is a sexually active lesbian adolescent. Which of the following is probably TRUE for Lydia? A) She has had sex with boys before a same-sex encounter. B) Her initial same-sex encounter was with a casual acquaintance. C) She is in love with her current partner. D) She is open with her parents about her romantic life.
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a
answer

Researchers have found a link between early dating and A) adolescent pregnancy. B) suicide. C) eating disorders. D) none of these.
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b
answer

Most adolescent love is characterized by A) affectionate love. B) romantic love. C) companionate love. D) agape.
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d
answer

The type of love characterized by the desire to have another person near and to have a deep, caring affection for that person is called A) eros. B) agape. C) filial love. D) affectionate love.
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a
answer

Shirlee and John are both widowed and they have found that they want to be with each other and to grow old together. They both say, \”romance is for the young,\” and they are happy with their relationship. Shirlee and John share which type of love? A) companionate B) erotic C) agape D) filial
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d
answer

Most boys and girls who date each other A) come from similar ethnic backgrounds. B) come from similar socioeconomic backgrounds. C) have similar academic success. D) all of these
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b
answer

Judy has a pattern of choosing partners whom she perceives to be unresponsive and unavailable. It is probable that Judy had a _____ attachment to her parents. A) preoccupied/ambivalent B) dismissive/avoidant C) disorganized D) secure
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d
answer

Debra’s parents have a high level of marital conflict. According to research, as an emerging adult, Debra is likely to have romantic relationships that are: A) stable. B) warm and nurturing. C) superficial. D) conflicted.
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c
answer

Research shows all of the following to be true of adolescents’ friendships and later romantic relationships EXCEPT A) intimate friendships form the basis for later dating and marital relationships. B) adolescents who are part of a mixed-gender peer group move more readily into romantic relationships. C) young adolescents decrease their mixed-gender peer group participation. D) mixed-gender groups are important to the development of romantic relationships.
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c
answer

Which of the following is NOT likely to be part of a dating script for females? A) enjoying the date. B) concern for appearance. C) initiating the date. D) responding to her date’s sexual gestures.
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answer

When parents impose strict rules on the dating behavior of their adolescent children, the adolescents frequently deal with this conflict by A) dating without the knowledge of their parents. B) having a teacher or coach talk to their parents about the norms of dating in the U.S. C) abiding by their parents’ rules but showing open hostility. D) doing none of these.
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d
answer

Approximately what percentage of U.S. couples cohabit before marriage today? A) 45 percent B) 55 percent C) 65 percent D) 75 percent
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a
answer

Which of the following statements about cohabitation is NOT true? A) Almost all cohabitating couples plan to marry at some point. B) Cohabitating couples’ relationships are usually short-lived. C) Fewer than 10 percent of cohabitating couples are still living together after five years. D) Relationships between cohabitating couples tend to be more equal than those of husbands and wives.
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b
answer

Lisa lives with her boyfriend, Jeff. According to recent research, Lisa is more at risk for _____ than her married counterparts. A) depression B) partner violence C) alcoholism D) eating disorders
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c
answer

Which of the following statements regarding marriage trends in the United States is NOT true? A) Marriage rates in the United States have declined in recent years. B) The average duration of marriage in the United States is 15 years. C) More than 90 percent of women will marry at some point in their lives. D) More adults are remaining single for longer periods of time.
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c
answer

Research on premarital education has shown all of the following to be true EXCEPT A) Premarital education has been linked to lower rates of divorce. B) Premarital education has been linked to lower levels of destructive marital conflict. C) Premarital education is best if the couple begins classes at least a year before the marriage. D) Premarital education focuses on relationship advice.
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d
answer

Flora and Amy are a lesbian couple. They have been together for 12 years and characterize their relationship as happy. Which of the following is likely to be TRUE of their relationship? A) They try to find a balance between romantic love, affection, autonomy, and equality. B) They have conflict in the same areas that heterosexual couples do (finances, household chores, etc.) C) They place a high priority on equality in their relationship. D) All of these.

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