Ch 8: Learning

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c) an enduring change in behavior due to experience
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Psychologists define learning as ______. a) repeated exposure to a stimulus b) an awareness of both internal and external events c) an enduring change in behavior due to experience d) a change in response to a stimulus
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d) habituated
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Marta is sitting in her college class and does not notice the feeling of the pen in her hand, the pressure of her feet on the floor, or the sound of the air conditioning humming above her. The fact that Marta is not responding to these stimuli shows she has ____ to them. a) orientated b) associated c) presented d) habituated
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a) the simplest form of learning
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Habituation is often regarded as _____. a) the simplest form of learning b)the chance association of two stimuli c) a “false alarm” d) a common orientating response
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b) an association
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Everytime his dad returns home with bags of groceries, two-year old Timmy looks at the bags and yells, “Cookies!” The child has made which of the following? a) a habituation b) an association c) an unconditioned response (UCR) d) a discrimination
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c) Classical conditioning involves learning based on associations, and operant conditioning involves learning based on consepuences.
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What is the distinction between classical conditioning and operant conditioning? a) Classical conditioning involves instant learning, and operant conditioning involves learning over time. b) Classical conditioning involves learning over time, and operant conditioning invovles instant learning. c) Classical conditioning involves learning based on associations, and operant conditioning involves learning based on consepuences. d) Classical learning invovles learning based on consequences, and operant conditioning involves learning based on associations.
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d) comes to associate a previously neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus
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Classical conditioning occurs when a organism ____. a) modifies its behavior as a result of experiencing consequences for its actions b) increases the likelihood of a behavior for a reward such as money or peer approval c) extends the association between a conditioned response and a consequence d) comes to associate a previously neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus
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b) Ivan Pavlov
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The researcher who discovered classical conditioning, quite bby accident, is ______. a) B.F. Skinner b) Ivan Pavlov c) Rosalie Rayner d) John Watson
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c) conditioned stimulus (CS)
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In Pavlov’s classical experiment, he presented the sound of a bell along with meat powder to his dogs. After several trials, the dogs learned to salivate to the sound of the bell in the absence of the meat powder. In this study, the sound of the bell ascted as ____. a) an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) b) an unconditioned response (UCR) c) conditioned stimulus (CS) (UCR) d) a conditioned response (CR)
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d) all of these
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An unconditioned response (UCR) is ____. a) automatic b) natural c) inborn d) all of these
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a) a reflex
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A fixed stimulus-response (S-R) pattern is known as ____. a) a reflex b) a conditioned response c) Pavlovian conditioning d) forward conditioning
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a) an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
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In Pavlov’s studies, the meat powder served as ____. a) an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) b) an uncondtioned response (UCR) c) a conditioned stimulus (CS) d) a conditioned response (CR)
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c) learned
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Another term for the word conditioned is ___. a) recovered b) extinguished c) learned d) motivated
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b) fear response
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By pairing a flashlight with a loud noise, a researcher has taught a rat to exhibit a fear response to the light. In this study, the rat’s conditioned response (CR) is the ____. a) loud noise b) fear response c) flashing light d) teaching the rat
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c) a conditioned stimulus (CS)
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When posing for a picture, Marla started blinking before the camera’s flash went off. To Marla, the camera has become ____. a) an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) b) an unconditioned response (UCR) c) a conditioned stimulus (CS) d) a conditioned response (CR)
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d) neutral stimulus is presented immediately before the unconditioned stimulus
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Forward conditioning occurs when the ____. a) a conditioned response is given before the neutral stimulus is presented b) neutral stimulus is presented immediately before the conditioned response c) unconditioned stimulus is presented at the same time as neutral stimulus d) neutral stimulus is presented immediately before the unconditioned stimulus
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b) The UCS and the CS are paired close together in time.
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Under which of the following circumstances is classical conditioning most likely to succeed? a) The organism is no longer rewarded for exhibiting the CR. b) The UCS and the CS are paired close together in time. c) The desired behavior is reinforced with intrinsically rewarding stimuli. d) The organism can generalize the association to stimuli similar to the CS.
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d) Presenting a flashing light after an electric shock is administerd to a rat’s tail.
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Which of the following studies is employing backward conditioning? a) Presenting a tone before a puff of air is blown in a cat’s face b) Presenting a flashing light before a puff of air is blown in a cat’s face. c) Presenting a flashing light before an electric shock is administered to a rat’s tail d) Presenting a flashing light after an electric shock is administerd to a rat’s tail.
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a) generalized
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Tracy was bitten by her naighbor’s aggressive dog, and now she will not go near any household pets. Tracy has ____ her fear of dogs to other animals. a) generalized b) extinguished c) shaped d) reinforced
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b) hostility
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Death from heart disease has been shown to be related to which of the following personality traits? a) shyness b) hostility c) vengefulness d) arrogance
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a) an increased risk of heart attack
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In coronary patients, in the hour following an angry outburst there is an _____. a) an increased risk of heart attack b) increase in immune responses c) increased chance of homeostasis d) all of these
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b) 10 years
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Cigarette smoking reduces life expectancy by ____. a) 5 years b) 10 years c) 20 years d) 25 years
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a) It can cause liver damage.
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May drinks alcohol excessively. What should she know about what this is doing to her body? a) It can cause liver damage. b) It increases the central nervous sytem (CNS) function c) It prevents cirrhosis. d) All of these.

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