Ch. 7 Human Species- Primate Sociality, Social Behavior, And Culture

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through a range of social behaviors
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how do primates express themselves?
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express themselves
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a range of social behaviors are used by primates to…
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primate societies
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what are complex organized?
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complexly organized
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how are primate societies organized?
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primates
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what form various social relationships for the long term?
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long term
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do primates form various social relationships for the long term or short term?
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social relationships
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what do primates for that are long term?
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*social relationships
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what do social signals establish and maintain?
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through social signals
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how are social relationships established and maintained?
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social behaviors
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what enhances survival and reproduction in primates?
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survival and reproduction
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what do social behaviors in primates enhance?
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survival
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1/2 things that social behaviors in primates enhance
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reproduction
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1/2 things that social behaviors in primates enhance
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social behavior
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what may be minted by natural selection?
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natural selection
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social behavior may be maintained by…
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residence patterns
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primates have a wide variety of what? (in terms of residence)
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*primates
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what has a wide variety of residence patterns?
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according to the number of adult males and females present in the group
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how are primates’ wide variety of residence patterns divided?
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primate’s wide variety of residence patterns way of dividing
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what is in accordance with the number of adult males and females present in the group?
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one male, multi female
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what is 1/6 of the way primate groups are divided
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one female, multi male
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what is 1/6 of the way primate groups are divided
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multi male, multi female
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what is 1/6 of the way primate groups are divided
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all male
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what is 1/6 of the way primate groups are divided
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one male, one female
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what is 1/6 of the way primate groups are divided
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solitary
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what is 1/6 of the way primate groups are divided
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monogamous, polygynous, polyandrous
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what 3 things can primates b? (intimacy-wise)
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social behavior, being selected for, learned, genetic
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what is social organization?
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social organization
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what is defined as social behavior, being selected for, learned, genetic?
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analyze genetics behind social behavior
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what is sociobiology?
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sociobiology
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what is defined as the analysis of genetics behind social behavior?
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polygynous
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what is a term for multiple wives?
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multiple wives
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what does polygynous mean?
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polyandrous
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what is a term for multiple husbands?
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multiple husbands
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what does polyandrous?
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monogamous
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what is a term meaning one mate?
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one mate
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what does monogamous mean?
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reproduction
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males and females differ in social behavior and especially in what area?
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mate
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what do males have to compete for?
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the more likely they will find a mate
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the bigger the primate, (mate-wise)
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passed down
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because bigger shape correlates to finding a mate, this large shape is then…
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male body and canine size
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because males compete for access to females, this affects…
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males competing for access to females
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what is influenced by male body and canine sizes?
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resources to support their young
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what do females compete for among each other?
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by competing with other females
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how do females obtain resources to support their young
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social behaviors
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females competing for resources for their young affects what?
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cooperation levels
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what are high in primates?
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high
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cooperation levels in primates are…
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alarm calls, grooming, food sharing, and caregiving
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altruistic behaviors include…
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altruistic behaviors
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what includes alarm calls, grooming, food sharing, and caregiving?
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part of kin selection
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altruistic behaviors are also in accordance with…
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behaviors related to living with relatives who share genetic material
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what is kin selection?
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kin selection
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what are behaviors related to living with relatives who share genetic material?
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cercopithecoids and chimps
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where are altruistic behaviors most prominently observed in?
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altruistic behaviors
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what are most seen in cercopithecoids and chimps?
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food resources and the search for them
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what takes up 50% of primates’ waking hours?
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50%
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food resources and the search for them occupy what % of primates’ waking hours?
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esp high are the nutritional needs of females with offspring
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what is high in regards to females and their role?
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quality, distribution, and availability
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what affects a female’s success at foraging?
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3
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how many factors affect a females’s success at foraging?
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female’s success at foraging
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what do quality, distribution, and availability all affect in terms of female’s role?
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quality
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1/3 of the factors that affect a female’s success at foraging
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distribution
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1/3 of the factors that affect a female’s success at foraging
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availability
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1/3 of the factors that affect a female’s success at foraging
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notion of nonhuman primate culture
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what can be controversial in terms of nonhuman primate culture?
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controversial
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notion of nonhuman primate culture can be… (the way it is perceived)
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jane goodall
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who was the first to asset that chimps possessed material culture?
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that chimps possessed material culture
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Jane Goodall was the first to assert…
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conflict
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what are some species known for in terms of competition/cooperation in primates?
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chimps hunting in groups (kill & share food)
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what is an example of high cooperative level?
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fitness of other relatives
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altruistic behaviors increases the…
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altruistic behaviors
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what is associated with risking themselves to save others?
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alarm call
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what is it called when a primate yells out if there is a predator approaching?
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with the relationship
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behavior to save person increases…
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it is saving your genes, blood
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altruistic behavior is more likely to be practiced since…
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attaining food
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female’s interest lies within…
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objects as a form of material culture
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researchers have seem behaviors related to the use and alteration of…
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vocal communication
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what is a fundamental behavior in primates?
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fundamental behavior in primates
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what is vocal communication?
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vocalizations
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what do all primates produce that serve different functions? (i.e. sound)
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to understand how different sounds function
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why do researchers study primate vocalizations?
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how primates respond to the vocalizations of group members
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what are playback experiments utilized to determine?
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very soft to very loud
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what can vocalizations range from?
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vocalizations
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what ranges from very soft to very loud?
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short and long distances
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information is transmitted over…
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soft sound
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what sound is associated with short distance?
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loud sound
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what sound is associated with long distance?
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may indicate a primate’s emotional state as well as giving the listeners information about the world around the caller
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what do vocalizations indicate for primates?
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vocalizations have clear patterns, similar to human language
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what have primatologists learned in regards to vocalization?
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primate vocalizations
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what are largely preprogrammed?
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in sounds
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some innovations can occur where?
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distance and vocalization
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what refers to sound if you want predators to hear you?
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*vocalizations
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what serves to name resources and monitor political landscapes within a group?
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learned
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are calls for predators learned or distinctive?
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because infants watch and learn the calls
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why are alarm calls learned?
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great apes lack the capability to human speech but possess rudimentary cognitive abilities necessary to understand human speech
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what have language studies demonstrated?
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language studies
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what demonstrated that great apes lack the capability to human speech but possess rudimentary cognitive abilities necessary to understand human speech?
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rudimentary cognitive abilities necessary to understand human speech
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since great apes lack human, what do they possess
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rudimentary cognitive abilities
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what is necessary to understand human speech the great apes possess?

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