Ch. 7 Deviance

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Deviance
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the recognized violation of cultural norms
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Crime
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the violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law
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True
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T/F Norms guide virtually all human activities.
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Social Control
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attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior
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Criminal justice system
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the organizations-police,courts,and prison officials- that respond to alleged violations of the law.
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Law enforcement, Court system, and Correctional system
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Name the three main branches of the criminal justice system:
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Tardiness to class, men with long hair, smoking cigarettes in the house, cross-dressing, profanity in my father’s house, being of legal drinking age and over indulging.
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List some acts that you would consider deviant but not criminal:
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Larceny-theft, homicide, assault, speeding, drug possession
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List some deviant acts that are considered criminal:
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Parents, spouse, family, friends, co-workers, religion
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Name some individuals that use informal means of social control in your everyday life (sanctions):
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Law enforcement, supervisor, court system, education system, prison, and other authorized agents.
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Name some individuals that use formal sanctions as a means of social control:
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deviance
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Most familiar examples of ___________ are negative instances of rule-breaking.
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deviant
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Especially righteous people also might be called “__________”.
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Different, unexpected
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“__________” or “_________” are often used to describe deviance from a sociological perspective.
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True
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T/F Criminal deviance spans a wide range of behaviors.
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Criminal Justice System
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A formal response by police, courts, and prison officials to alleged violations of the law.
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True
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T/F Biological factors might have a real but modest effect on whether a person becomes a criminal.
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True
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T/F Personality/psychological explanations of deviance is viewed as unsuccessful “socialization”.
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Psychological/personality
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_____________ explanations of deviance focus on individual abnormality.
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True
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T/F Most psychologists think personality is shaped primarily by social experience.
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1) Deviance varies according to cultural norms 2) People become deviant as others define them that way. 3) Both norms and the way people define rule breaking involve social power.
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Name the three social foundations of deviance:
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True
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T/F No thought or action is inherently deviant; it becomes deviant only in relation to particular norms.
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True
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T/F Whether behavior defines us as mentally ill, criminal, or deviant depends on how others perceive, define, and respond to it.
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True
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T/F Norms and how we apply them reflect social inequality.
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structural-functional approach
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The key insight of the ___________ ___________ ___________ is that deviance is a necessary element of social organization.
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Emile Durkheim
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_________ ___________ made the statement that there is nothing abnormal about deviance.
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1) Deviance affirms cultural values and norms 2) Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries. 3) Responding to deviance brings people together. 4) Deviance encourages social change.
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According to the structural-functional approach, deviance performs four essential functions:
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True
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T/F Durkheim considered deviance to be a natural and necessary part of all social organization.
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Merton’s Strain Theory
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According to this theory, the extent and kind of deviance depend on whether a society provides the means (job/education) to achieve cultural goals (financial success).
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Symbolic-interaction approach
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__________ __________ __________ explains how people come to see deviance in everyday situations; definitions of deviance and conformity are surprisingly flexible.
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Labeling theory
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the idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions.
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Stigma
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a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity.
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Degradation ceremony
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public rituals whose purpose is to attach a stigma; a person stands before the community to be labeled in negative rather than positive terms.
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Medicalization of deviance
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the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition. (alcoholism)
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Social-conflict approach
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_________ ________ _________ links deviance to social inequality; that is, who or what is labeled “deviant” depends on which categories of people hold power in a society.
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White-collar crime
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crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations.
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Corporate crime
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the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf.
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Organized Crime
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a business of supplying illegal goods or services.
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True
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T/F What people consider deviant reflects the relative power and privilege of different categories of people.
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Hate crime
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a criminal act against a person or a person’s property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias.
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hate crime
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A ______ ______ may express hostility toward someone based on race, religion, ancestry, sexual orientation, or physical disability.
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Crime
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______ is the violation of criminal laws enacted by a locality, a state, or the federal government.
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Act, criminal intent
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All crimes are composed of two distinct elements:
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Crimes against the person, crimes against property, victimless crimes
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There are three categories of criminal offenses:
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Crimes against the person, crimes against property
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The two major types of serious crime (that make up the FBI “crime index”):
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Crimes against the person
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(violent crimes) crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others.
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Crimes against property
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(property crimes) crimes that involve theft of money or property belonging to others.
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Victimless crimes
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violations of the law in which there are no obvious victims.
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murder, manslaughter, aggravated assault, forcible rape, robbery
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Give examples of crimes against the person:
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burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, arson
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Give examples of crimes against property:
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illegal drug use, prostitution, gambling
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Give examples of victimless crimes:
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criminal justice system
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The _______ _______ _______ is a society’s formal response to crime.
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Due process
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the idea that the criminal justice system should operate under the rule of law; guides the actions of police, court officials, and corrections officers.
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Plea bargaining
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a legal negotiation in which a prosecutor reduces a charge in exchange for a defendant’s guilty plea.
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Plea bargaining
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_______ ________ is widespread because it spares the system the time and expense of trials.
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True
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T/F Plea bargaining pressures defendants (who are presumed innocent) to plead guilty.
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True
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T/F Plea bargaining may be efficient, but it undercuts both the adversarial process and the rights of defendants.
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Retribution, Deterrence, Rehabilitation, Societal protection/incapacitation
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Name the four justifications for punishment:
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Retribution
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an act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime.
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Deterrence
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the attempt to discourage criminality through the use of punishment.
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Rehabilitation
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a program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses.
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Societal protection/incapacitation
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rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through imprisonment or permanently by execution.
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Retribution
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___________ is the oldest justification for punishment.
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True
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T/F Societal protection is a rational approach to punishment intended to protect society from crime.
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Criminal recidivism
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later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes.
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Community-based corrections
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correctional programs operating within society at large rather than behind prison walls.
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Reduce costs, reduce overcrowding in prisons, allow for supervision of convicts while eliminating the hardships of prison life and the stigma that accompanies going to jail.
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Three main advantages to community-based corrections:
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True
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T/F In general, the idea of community-based corrections is not so much to punish as to reform.
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Probation, Shock probation, Parole
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Name the three forms of community-based corrections:
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Probation
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a policy of permitting a convicted offender to remain in the community under conditions imposed by a court.
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Shock probation
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a policy by which a judge orders a convicted offender to prison for a short time and then suspends the remainder of the sentence in favor of probation.
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Parole
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a policy of releasing inmates from prison to serve the remainder of their sentences in the local community under the supervision of a parole officer.
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Community-based corrections
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“_____ ______ _______” refers to ways of dealing with offenders without sending them to prison.
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differential association theory
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Sutherland’s _____ _______ _______ links deviance to how much others encourage or discourage such behavior.
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control theory
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Hirschi’s ______ _______ states that imagining the possible consequences of deviance often discourages such behavior.
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True
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T/F According to the control theory, people who are well integrated into society are less likely to engage in deviant behavior.
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True
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T/F Official statistics show that arrest rates peak in late adolescence and drop steadily with advancing age.
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True
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T/F More whites than African Americans are arrested for street crimes.
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True
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T/F By world standards, the U.S. crime rate is high.
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police
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The _______ maintain public order by enforcing the law.
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True
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T/F Police use personal discretion in deciding whether and how to handle a situation.
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True
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T/F Research suggests that police are more likely to make an arrest if the offense is serious, if bystanders are present, or if the suspect is African American or Latino.
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probation, parole
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Community-based corrections include ______ and ______.
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True
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T/F Courts rely on an adversarial process in which attorneys present their cases in the presence of a judge who monitors legal procedures.
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True
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T/F In practice, U.S. courts resolve most cases through plea bargaining.
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True
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T/F Though plea bargaining is efficient, this method puts less powerful people at a disadvantage.

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