Ch.5 AP World History

Flashcard maker : James Hopper
Olmec Culture
Cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico circa 1,200 BCE; featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems, famous for its HEADS(especially at San Lorenzo)
Kush
An Egyptian name for Nubia, the region alongside the Nile River south of Egypt, where an indigenous kingdom with its own distinctive institutions and cultural traditions arose beginning in the early second millennium B.C.E. It was deeply influenced by Egyptian culture and at times under the control of Egypt, which coveted its rich deposits of gold and luxury products from sub-Saharan Africa carried up the Nile corridor. Defeated by the Axum Kingdom in 300 BCE.
Sassanid Empire
The name of the last pre-Islamic Iranian empire. It was one of the two main powers in Western Asia for a period of more than 400 years. Was founded by Ardashir I after defeating the last Parthian (Arsacid) king, in Persia,also involving a revival of a revival of the Persian religion Zoroastrianism). Fought the Byzantines, which weakened them both.
Axum
Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; defeated kingdom of Kush around 300 B.C.E. and succeeded by Ethiopia. Received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity
Ethiopia
A Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of King Lalaibela; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa, also defeated the kingdom of Axum.
Silk Road
An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay. Pastoralists played a major role in establishing and expanding this trade network. Major spread of religion(peacefully) because of this, and of technology.
Sahara
The largest desert in the world, stretching 3,000 miles across the African continent, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea, and measuring 1,200 miles from north to south.
Shintoism
The religion of the early Japanese culture; worshiped numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world (polytheistic, animistic); offered food and prayers to gods and nature spirits
Celtic
A cultural meta-group in central and northwestern Europe, flourishing prior to Roman expansions; includes Irish, Welsh, Scottish, and the Gauls
Nimbus
a halo or aureole appearing around the head of a holy figure to signify divinity
Maya
Classic culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central America contemporary with Teotihuacan; extended over broad region; featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical and mathematical systems, highly developed religion
Inca
A member of the small group of Quechuan people living in the Cuzco valley in Peru who established hegemony over their neighbors to create the great Inca empire that lasted from about 1100 until the Spanish conquest in the early 1530s. Had the best roads in the world at their height. Ruins at Machu Picchu
Aztecs
Also known as Mexica, they created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshiped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor
Polynesia
Islands contained in a rough triangle whose points lie in Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island, a sub region of Oceania.
Yellow Turbans
Chinese Daoists who launched a revolt in 184 C.E., promising a golden age to be brought about by divine magic. Attacked the weakness of the Emperor and self indulgence of the bureaucracy. They FAILED. Epidemics might have factored into it. Han Dynasty did end around this time.
Sui Dynasty
The short dynasty between the Han and the Tang built the Grand Canal, strengthened the government, and introduced Buddhism to China
Tang Dynasty
Cnsidered the golden age of Chinese civilization and ruled for nearly 300 years; China grew under the dynasty to include much of eastern Asia (expands from Vietnam to Manchuria ), as well as large parts of Central Asia. Confucianism was revived along with the bureaucracy
Rajput
Regional princes in India following collapse of the Gupta empire; emphasized military control of their regions
Devi
Mother goddess within Hinduism; widely spread following collapse of Guptas; encouraged new emotionalism in religious ritual
Islam
a monotheistic religion meaning \”submission to the will of Allah.\” Muslims, or followers of this religion, are monotheistic and believe Allah is the only God and that Muhammad is his messenger. It was started by Muhammad in Mecca at around 610. Muslims follow the five pillars: faith, prayer, alms, fasting, and pilgrimage and believe in their holy book the Qur’an.
Allah
the supreme God in the monotheistic Islam
Constantinople
Emperor Constantine,AD 330 moved the capital from Rome to the Greek city Byzantium in the east, and renamed the city. This city became the capital of the Roman empire. It was strategically located for trade and defense purposes.
Byzantine Empire
Historians’ name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from ‘Byzantion,’ an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453.
Justinian
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
Coptic
The Christian church of Egypt, with dioceses elsewhere in Africa and the Near East. This is a branch within Orthodox Christianity, tolerated an Islamic takeover.
Augustine
Influential church father and theologian; Bishop of Hippo; champion of Christian doctrine against various heresies and very important in the long-term development of Christian thought on such issues as predestination
Bodhisattvas
Buddhist doctrine that held that some people could gain nirvana through their own meditation. This shows that Buddhism shifted from a system of ethics into a more emotional belief.
Mahayana
One of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine emphasizing a common search for universal salvation especially through faith alone, bigger boat. Also called the \”Greater Vehicle\”, found mainly in China/ Tibet etc. Bodhisattvas remained important.
Jesus of Nazereth
Prophet and teacher aamong the Jews, believed by Christians to be the Messiah, executed 30 CE.
Paul
One of the first Christian missionaries; moved away from insistence that adherents of the new religion follow Jewish Law; use of Greek as language of the Church, initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but, after receiving a revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus, became a Christian
Pope
The bishop of Rome and supreme leader of the Roman Catholic Church
Trinity
Religious dogma which professes the belief in the three persons in one God, The father, the son, and the Holy Spirit
Benedict of Nursia
Founder of monasticism in what had been the western half of the Roman Empire; established Benedictine Rule in the 6th century; paralleled development of Basil’s rules in Byzantine Empire.
animism
Superstitious religious belief that attributes human qualities to material objects or nonhuman living creatures, oldest belief system.

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