Ch.4: Research Design (QUIZ) [Exam 1]

*At Momentum Market Intelligence (MMI) a client experiences a 12% decline in market share. Since MMI knows “they don’t know what the problem is,” the research design they should use is: *

A) causal.
B) explanatory.
C) experimental.
D) cross-longitudinal.
E) exploratory.

*E)* exploratory.

*Which of the following is true about research design? *

A) Research design should be the first consideration in a research project.
B) Research design should be selected after thoroughly considering the problem and research objectives.

*B)* Research design should be selected after thoroughly considering the problem and research objectives.

*Which of the following is the best description of research design? *

A) a set of advance decisions that makes up the master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information
B) a marketing term or concept involved in the marketing management problem that will be researched
C) the specific pieces of information that are necessary to solve the problem at hand
D) a list from which sample elements are drawn from the sample, which contains all of the elements in the population being studied
E) a set of advance decisions that are made after the data have been collected in order to determine how the data will be analyzed

*A)* a set of advance decisions that makes up the master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information

*Which of the following best describes the significance of research design? *

A) Because all research problems are different, research designs are applicable only in an academic setting; they cannot be used in the real world.
B) Because research designs may be “matched” to different kinds of problems, the research design may serve as a blueprint for the researcher.
C) Because research designs are like blueprints, they are most helpful during data analysis.
D) Research designs are used after studies are completed and are used to make improvements in future research studies.
E) Research designs are important because clients often decide to fund research if they find the design is pleasing to the eye.

*B)* Because research designs may be “matched” to different kinds of problems, the research design may serve as a blueprint for the researcher.

*The various types of research design include: *

A) exploratory, exploitive, and competitive.
B) deductive, descriptive, and exploitive.
C) exploratory, causal, and competitive.
D) causal, experimental, and exhaustive.
E) exploratory, descriptive, and causal.

*E)* exploratory, descriptive, and causal.

*Which of the following is an objective of research? *

A) to gain background information and to develop hypotheses
B) to measure the state of a variable of interest (for example, level of brand loyalty)
C) to test hypotheses that specify the relationships between two or more variables (for example, level of advertising and brand loyalty)
D) all of the above
E) none of the above

*D)* all of the above

*If the research objective is to gain background information, it is likely that the most appropriate research design would be: *

A) exploitive.
B) exhaustive.
C) deductive.
D) exploratory.
E) causal.

*D)* exploratory.

*Which of the following is most true about research designs? *

A) They follow one another in a step-by-step fashion.
B) It may be that only exploitive research design is appropriate for a given project.
C) Exploitive designs must always follow competitive designs.
D) All designs should include at least some exhaustive research.
E) None of the above is true.

*E)* None of the above is true.

*Which of the following is NOT an area of ethical sensitivity in planning research design?*

A) recommending a more costly design than is needed
B) designing a study in which data are collected for multiple clients
C) misrepresenting sampling methods
D) over- or under-estimating data collection costs
E) All of the above are areas of ethical sensitivity in planning research design.

*E)* All of the above are areas of ethical sensitivity in planning research design.

*Researchers should inform clients as to how the proposed sample plan will result in a representative sample in order to avoid: *

A) recommending a more costly design than is needed.
B) designing a study in which data are collected for multiple clients.
C) misrepresenting sampling methods.
D) A and C only.
E) All of the above will be prevented by sharing this information with the client.

*D)* A and C only.

*A researcher presenting secondary data as if it were primary data collected by the researcher is an egregious example of an ethical lapse in what area of sensitivity in planning research design?*

A) recommending a more costly design than is needed
B) designing a study in which data are collected for multiple clients
C) misrepresenting sampling methods
D) wrongfully gaining respondent cooperation to reduce costs
E) using information obtained for a client in another research project

*A)* recommending a more costly design than is needed

*What type of research is unstructured and informal? *

A) deductive
B) causal
C) exploratory
D) exploitive
E) exhaustive

*C)* exploratory

*Ray Kroc, a milk shake machine salesman, noticed that one restaurant in California burned up many milk shake machines. He inferred that the restaurant was meeting the needs of the market better than other restaurants. His observation illustrates the use of: *

A) observational deduction.
B) exploratory research.
C) explanatory research.
D) causal research.
E) discontinuous panel research.

*B)* exploratory research.

*In which of the following situations should exploratory research be used? *

A) to measure the relationships among variables
B) when experimentation is needed
C) to define terms
D) in situations in which all of the concepts are clearly defined and measured
E) to determine how variable x causes variable y

*C)* to define terms

*Which of the following is NOT a situation in which exploratory research should be used? *

A) to measure the relationships among variables
B) to clarify problems
C) to establish research priorities
D) to gain background information
E) to clarify hypotheses

*A)* to measure the relationships among variables

*Appropriate methods for conducting exploratory research would include: *

A) secondary data analysis.
B) experiments.
C) sample surveys.
D) longitudinal research.
E) discontinuous panels.

*A)* secondary data analysis.

*The process of searching for and interpreting EXISTING information relevant to the research problem can be described as: *

A) an experience survey.
B) causal analysis.
C) exploitive research.
D) exhaustive research.
E) secondary data analysis.

*E)* secondary data analysis.

*Experience surveys are used in which of the following ways? *

A) to search for and interpret existing information relevant to the research problem
B) to gather information from persons thought to be knowledgeable on the issues relevant to the research problem
C) to review the available information about a former situation(s) that has some similarities to the present research problem
D) to explore hidden consumer motives for buying goods and services by asking participants to project themselves into a situation and then respond to specific questions regarding the situation
E) to use surveys that the researchers have conducted in the past and, therefore, they have experience in how to conduct and interpret the surveys

*B)* to gather information from persons thought to be knowledgeable on the issues relevant to the research problem

*Which of the following is a type of exploratory research that refers to a review of available information about a former situation that has some similarities to the present research problem? *

A) secondary data analysis
B) experience surveys
C) projective techniques
D) case analysis
E) ex post facto studies

*D)* case analysis

*Small groups of people brought together and guided by a moderator through an unstructured, spontaneous discussion for the purpose of gaining information relevant to the research problem can be categorized under which type of research design?*

A) exploratory research
B) causal research
C) deductive research
D) exploitive research
E) exhaustive research

*A)* exploratory research

*What type of research design does the text state should almost always be used in research studies*

A) causal research
B) exploratory research
C) explicit research
D) exhaustive research
E) descriptive research

*B)* exploratory research

*What type of research design should a marketing researcher use to find out how many customers there are, what brands they buy and in what quantities, which advertisements they recall, what are their attitudes toward the company, and who is the competition? *

A) exploratory research
B) descriptive research
C) causal research
D) explicit research
E) exhaustive research

*B)* descriptive research

*Descriptive research studies are conducted to: *

A) answer who, what, when, where, and how questions.
B) specify the causality in the problem.
C) describe previous findings in similar problems.
D) answer who, what, when, where, how, and why questions.
E) determine if x, then y, relationships.

*A)* answer who, what, when, where, and how questions.

*What are the two basic types of studies that are categorized as descriptive research? *

A) focus groups and case analysis
B) longitudinal studies and case analysis
C) focus groups and cross-sectional studies
D) case analysis and experiments
E) longitudinal studies and cross-sectional studies

*E)* longitudinal studies and cross-sectional studies

*What type of descriptive research study measures a population at only one point in time? *

A) sample observations
B) cross-sectional studies
C) longitudinal studies
D) “point in time” studies
E) “one point in time” studies

*B)* cross-sectional studies

*Longitudinal studies can be described as techniques that: *

A) measure the population at only one point in time.
B) develop an understanding of a phenomenon in terms of “if-then” conditional statements.
C) search for and interpret existing information relevant to the research problem.
D) repeatedly measure the same sample units from the population over a period of time.
E) conduct parallel studies, which allows for comparisons to be made between such studies.

*D)* repeatedly measure the same sample units from the population over a period of time.

*A panel of respondents is often used in which type of study? *

A) longitudinal
B) cross-sectional
C) sample surveys
D) case analysis
E) exhaustive

*A)* longitudinal

*Knowledge Networks provides clients with access to a representative group of Latino households who have agreed to answer research questions sent to them by the research service. Knowledge Networks is performing a(n) ________ research study.*

A) panel
B) lead-user survey
C) case analysis
D) experiment
E) focus group

*A)* panel

*What type of panel asks the panel members the same questions on each panel measurement? *

A) inquisitional panel
B) discontinuous panel
C) repeatability panel
D) continuous panel
E) exploratory panel

*D)* continuous panel

*Of the following situations, which would be the most appropriate for using a discontinuous panel? *

A) to gain insights into changes in consumers’ purchases and attitudes
B) to determine if members of the panel switched brands from one time period to the next
C) to measure changes in market shares of brands
D) to measure changes in consumers’ price sensitivity
E) to determine how consumers feel about two different product concepts by varying panel questions from one panel measurement to the next

*E)* to determine how consumers feel about two different product concepts by varying panel questions from one panel measurement to the next

*What type of panel should be used in brand-switching studies? *

A) repeatability panel
B) continuous panel
C) inquisitional panel
D) discontinuous panel
E) exploratory panel

*B)* continuous panel

*What is the purpose of a market-tracking study?*

A) to determine if consumers switched brands from one time period to the next
B) to measure some variable of interest, such as market share or unit sales over time
C) to determine the relationship among several variables
D) to search for and interpret existing information relevant to the research problem
E) to keep up with changes competitors are making in their marketing mixes

*B)* to measure some variable of interest, such as market share or unit sales over time

*What type of research design should a researcher use if he or she wishes to determine the effect of a change in price on the sales of a particular brand? *

A) causal
B) exploitive
C) longitudinal
D) exploratory
E) discontinuous

*A)* causal

*In an experiment, over which type of variable does a researcher have control and wish to manipulate? *

A) dependent variable
B) extraneous variable
C) independent variable
D) complex variable
E) deductive manipulative variables

*C)* independent variable

*When a variable exerts influence on the dependent variable but is not an independent variable, we refer to it as a(n): *

A) influencing variable.
B) extraneous variable.
C) unwanted variable.
D) complex variable.
E) effect variable.

*B)* extraneous variable.

*An experiment is defined as: *

A) something men and/or women in white coats do.
B) manipulating an independent variable to see how it affects a dependent variable, while also controlling for the effects of additional complex variables.
C) manipulating a dependent variable to see how it affects an independent variable, while also controlling for the effects of additional complex variables.
D) holding all variables constant to observe any effects of one variable over another over time.
E) manipulating an independent variable to see how it affects a dependent variable, while also controlling for the effects of additional extraneous variables.

*E)* manipulating an independent variable to see how it affects a dependent variable, while also controlling for the effects of additional extraneous variables.

*An experimental design is a procedure for ensuring that: *

A) the change in the dependent variable may be solely attributed to the change in the independent variable.
B) the change in the independent variable may be solely attributed to the change in the complex variable.
C) the change in the dependent variable may be solely attributed to the change in the extraneous variable.
D) any and all effects on all experimental values are measured.
E) the manipulation made on the complex variable is accurately measured.

*A)* the change in the dependent variable may be solely attributed to the change in the independent variable.

*Which of the following symbols represents the measurement of the complex variable in an experimental design? *

A) O
B) X
C) C
D) Z
E) none of the above answers is correct as there is no such thing as a “complex” variable

*E)* none of the above answers is correct as there is no such thing as a “complex” variable

*Which of the following experimental design symbols represents the measurement of the dependent variable? *

A) D
B) X
C) O
D) C
E) I

*C)* O

*Which of the following experimental design symbols represents the change or manipulation of the independent variable? *

A) I
B) X
C) D
D) C
E) M

*B)* X

*Which of the following research designs would be considered a quasi-experimental design as discussed in the textbook? *

A) Latin square design
B) one-group, before-after design
C) before-after with control group design
D) prettiest design
E) after-only design

*E)* after-only design

*Which of the following designs represents the before-after with control group design? *

A) X – O – C
B) E = I X O
C) E = O X O
D) X = E + X + O
E) none of the above

*E)* none of the above

*In experimental designs an R stands for: *

A) restricted use of complex variables.
B) random assignment of research subjects (e.g., stores) to groups (experimental and control).
C) random assignment of treatments to either the independent or the dependent variables.
D) realism; which is appropriate only for studies with external validity.
E) There is no R in experimental design terminology.

*B)* random assignment of research subjects (e.g., stores) to groups (experimental and control).

*How can it be determined if an experiment is valid? *

A) The observed change in the dependent variable is in fact due to the independent variable.
B) The results of the experiment apply to the real world outside the experimental setting.
C) The results do not account for the effects of extraneous variables.
D) The results are reported in well-known news media.
E) A and B are correct.

*E)* A and B are correct.

*Internal validity is concerned with which of the following? *

A) the representativeness of the sample test units
B) the extent that the observed relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable is generalizable to the real world
C) the measurement of extraneous variables that are internal to the experimental setting itself
D) the extent to which the change in the dependent variable was actually due to the independent variable
E) the control of the complex variables not having an effect on the independent variable

*D)* the extent to which the change in the dependent variable was actually due to the independent variable

*What type of experimental validity is concerned with the extent that the relationship observed between the independent and dependent variable during the experiment is generalizable to the real world? *

A) external validity
B) internal validity
C) extraneous validity
D) causal validity
E) confirmed validity

*A)* external validity

*What type of experiment involves manipulating the independent variable and measuring the dependent variable in an artificial setting contrived to control extraneous variables? *

A) field experiments
B) extraneous experiments
C) laboratory experiments
D) artificial experiments
E) complex variable experiments

*C)* laboratory experiments

*When are laboratory experiments desirable? *

A) when the sample should be representative of the population to which the results are generalized
B) when the experiment’s context and conduct are natural so that the subjects behave realistically
C) when the intent of the experiment is to achieve high levels of external validity
D) when the intent of the experiment is to achieve high levels of internal validity
E) when the intent is to achieve high external validity and moderate internal validity

*D)* when the intent of the experiment is to achieve high levels of internal validity

*What type of experiment involves manipulating the independent variable and measuring the dependent variable in a natural setting? *

A) extraneous experiments
B) field experiments
C) laboratory experiments
D) naturalistic experiments
E) eco-experiments

*B)* field experiments

*Which of the following is a potential use of test marketing? *

A) to test the sales potential for a new product
B) to test variations in the marketing mix for a product
C) to test the sales potential for a new service
D) to test variations in the marketing mix for a service
E) all of the above

*B)* to test variations in the marketing mix for a product

*What type of test marketing should be used when a firm wants to test the product and/or marketing mix variables through the company’s normal distribution channels? *

A) controlled test markets
B) electronic test markets
C) simulated test markets
D) norm test markets
E) standard test markets

*E)* standard test markets

*What type of test markets are conducted by outside research firms who guarantee distribution of the product through prespecified types and numbers of distributors? *

A) controlled test markets
B) electronic test markets
C) standard test markets
D) simulated test markets
E) guaranteed distribution test markets

*A)* controlled test markets

*Of the following, which is a potential disadvantage of using a simulated test market? *

A) The distribution network may or may not properly represent the firm’s actual distribution system.
B) It is often very time consuming.
C) It is often too expensive.
D) It lacks confidentiality.
E) It is not as accurate as full-scale test markets.

*E)* It is not as accurate as full-scale test markets.

*Which of the following best represents the criteria discussed by the authors to be used in selection of a test market city? *

A) representativeness, isolation, and control of distribution and promotion
B) representativeness, isolation, and cost
C) representativeness, existing company presence, and control of promotion
D) representativeness, cost, and control of competitor’s intelligence
E) isolation, cost, effectiveness, and control

*A)* representativeness, isolation, and control of distribution and promotion

*Which of the following best represents the disadvantages of conducting test markets as discussed by the authors? *

A) cost, competitor intervention, and government regulations of test markets
B) infallibility of results, cost, and exposure of product/service to competition and ethical issues
C) cost, delay in getting to the market first, and competitive awareness of the product/service
D) relying on consumers in only one market, using distributors who “know” there is a test, biased results arising from too much executive time being allocated to the test as opposed to normal market conditions
E) Disadvantages were not discussed in the textbook.

*B)* infallibility of results, cost, and exposure of product/service to competition and ethical issues

*Dirt Devil vacuum cleaning company is interested in knowing if a proposed advertising message will be effective in generating interest in purchasing their portable vacuum cleaner. They contact marketing research firm, InsightExpress®, which has a service that tests proposed ad copy with consumers they have recruited to participate. Copies of the ad are prepared and are shown to several hundred consumers online. Consumers evaluate the ad, and the results are given to Dirt Devil. This is an example of which of the following? *

A) longitudinal research
B) causal research
C) experimental research
D) exhaustive research
E) cross-sectional research

*E)* cross-sectional research

*Your university decides it will create a panel of consumers in your local area. The purpose of the panel is to report the local population’s attitudes, preferences, and intentions on a variety of local issues. In the first administration of the panel, the questions asked for voter preferences for an upcoming local election. In the second administration, questions submitted to the panel asked for their attitudes about the quality of the drinking water and air in your area. Which type of panel has your university created? *
A) continuous panel
B) inquisitional panel
C) discontinuous panel
D) repeatability panel
E) exploratory panel
*C)* discontinuous panel

*Mack Trucks decides to conduct an experiment to determine if a new oil additive actually results in increased fuel efficiency. They find a lab that contains 50 engines that are exactly alike. Mack randomly divides the 50 engines into two groups — an experimental group (which has the new oil additive) and the control group (which does not have the new oil additive). They pour the exact same amount of fuel into all 50 engines and time how long each engine runs. Afterward, they average the length of time run by the 25 engines in the control group versus the 25 engines in the experimental group. Which of the following represents the experimental design in this study?*

A) X O1
B) (R) O1 X O2; (R) O3 O4
C) O1 X O2
D) (R) O1 X O2; (R) O3 D O4
E) (R) O1 O2; (R) O3 D O4

*B)* (R) O1 X O2; (R) O3 O4

*TechTrician, Inc. makes a major breakthrough in cell phone technology and design. Their research and development department has created advanced micro-circuitry that is one hundred times more sensitive to cell signals than conventional cell phones. This means that there is almost never a break in cell phone signals even when the caller is several miles from what would be considered “in range” for conventional phones. The problem is that the new technology adds about $100 to the cost of the phone. TechTrician, Inc. must spend a considerable amount of funds to retool in order to produce the new phones. They decide to test market the new phones. The company is located in Los Angeles and several executives believe it would be less costly to run the test market in their own city. However, Bob Brobst, one of the marketing managers, has argued for running at least two test markets; one in Phoenix, AZ, and one in Tulsa, OK. What criterion for test market selection is Bob Brobst using? *

A) representativeness
B) degree of isolation
C) control over media
D) control over distribution
E) lower costs

*B)* degree of isolation