Ch 4 IB: Culture – Introduction to Sociology

question

Values provide the context within which a society’s norms are established and justified. True False
answer

t
question

Rituals and symbols are the most visible manifestations of a culture and constitute the outward expression of deeper values. True False
answer

t
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There is a strict one-to-one correspondence between a society and a nation-state. True False
answer

f
question

The emphasis on individualism results in a low degree of managerial mobility between companies. True False
answer

f
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The emphasis on individualism may make it difficult to build teams within an organization to perform collective tasks.
answer

t
question

The emphasis on individualism has led to the widespread diffusion of self-managing work teams within Japanese organizations.
answer

f
question

The primacy of the value of group identification encourages managers and workers to move from company to company.
answer

f
question

Strong identification with the group tends to create pressures for mutual self-help and collective action.
answer

t
question

Individuals become a member of the social category to which their parents belong.
answer

t
question

The least rigid system of social stratification is a caste system.
answer

f
question

A caste system is a closed system of stratification in which social position is determined by the family into which a person is born.
answer

t
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In a class system, individuals born into a class at the bottom of the social hierarchy can work their way up.
answer

t
question

Although upward social mobility was possible in Britain, it could not normally be achieved in one generation.
answer

t
question

Class membership in the United States is determined to a much greater degree by individual background and schooling, as opposed to economic achievements.
answer

f
question

In American society, the high degree of social mobility and the extreme emphasis on individualism have resulted in the emergence of class consciousness.
answer

f
question

It is easier for companies based in countries with a high degree of class consciousness to establish a competitive advantage in the global economy.
answer

f
question

Confucianism and Confucian ethics influence behavior and shape culture in parts of Asia, hence it is correct to characterize Confucianism as a religion.
answer

f
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Buddhism has the highest number of adherents in the world today.
answer

f
question

According to Max Weber, Protestant ethics discouraged the development of capitalism.
answer

f
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Max Weber argued that the Catholic promise of salvation in the next world, rather than this world, fostered “a spirit of capitalism.”
answer

F
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Like Christianity and Judaism, Islam is a monotheistic religion.
answer

t
question

Islam is not just a religion; it is also the source of law, a guide to statecraft, and an arbiter of social behavior.
answer

t
question

Under the Islamic banking method of mudarabah, when an Islamic bank lends money to a business, rather than charging that business interest on the loan, it takes a share in the profits that are derived from the investment.
answer

t
question

The murabaha contract is the most widely used among the world’s Islamic banks, primarily because it is the easiest to implement.
answer

t
question

Max Weber argued that the ascetic principles embedded in Hinduism encourage the kind of entrepreneurial activity in pursuit of wealth creation that we find in Protestantism.
answer

f
question

The concept of mobility between castes within an individual’s lifetime makes no sense to traditional Hindus.
answer

t
question

Confucianism is not concerned with the supernatural and has little to say about the concept of a supreme being or an afterlife.
answer

t
question

The use of a grading system in schools teaches children the value of personal achievement and competition.
answer

t
question

According to Geert Hofstede, high power distance cultures were found in societies that tried to play down inequalities of power and wealth as much as possible.
answer

f
question

People who cannot take food or safety for granted tend to have authoritarian tendencies, and believe that men make better political leaders than women.
answer

t
question

According to the World Values Survey, as countries get richer, a shift occurs away from “traditional values” linked to religion, family, and country, and toward “secular rational” values.
answer

t
question

Which of the following means an understanding of how cultural differences across and within nations can affect the way business is practiced? A. Ethnocentrism B. Cross-cultural literacy C. Pan-culture integration D. Cultural lag E. Cultural capitalism
answer

b
question

When Shop Smart opened its first super market in China it was unable to generate any sales. After conducting a research, it was understood that the local sales personnel found it difficult to communicate with the American store managers. In addition, Chinese consumers found it difficult to shop in the American way. Shop Smart’s failure in China can be attributed to the lack of: A. cross-cultural literacy. B. class consciousness. C. a first-mover advantage. D. Confucian dynamism. E. ethnocentrism.
answer

a
question

Which of the following statements is true about culture? A. Culture is static as it does not evolve. B. Multinational enterprises can themselves be engines of cultural change. C. The cost of doing business in a country or region is always independent of its culture. D. It is not possible for a country to support multiple cultures. E. The values and norms of a culture emerge fully formed.
answer

b
question

In a social context, the term values is used to describe the: A. economic benefits that are inherent to a culture. B. collective wealth of the society. C. abstract ideas about what a group believes to be good, right, and desirable. D. political ascendancy of a country. E. social rules and guidelines about the appropriate behavior in public.
answer

c
question

In a society, actions of people directed toward one another are governed by a set of social rules called: A. norms. B. manifestoes. C. structures. D. scriptures. E. dialects.
answer

a
question

Which of the following are social conventions concerning things such as the appropriate dress code in a particular situation, good social manners, eating with the correct utensils, neighborly behavior, and the like? A. Folkways B. Proscriptions C. Reprobations D. Fellowships E. Taboos
answer

a
question

Which of the following exemplifies violation of folkways best? A. Committing a financial fraud B. Practicing cannibalism under the belief that it leads to superpowers C. Failing to greet a person you know D. Stealing an author’s or an inventor’s intellectual property E. Murdering a business partner
answer

c
question

What is the difference between folkways and mores? A. Folkways are norms that are seen as central to the functioning of a society, whereas mores are the routine conventions of everyday life. B. Violating mores tends to bring more serious retribution than violating folkways. C. Folkways exclude rituals and symbolic behaviors included in mores. D. Folkways have much greater significance than mores. E. Mores cannot be enacted into laws, whereas folkways can.
answer

b
question

Which of the following best exemplifies violation of mores? A. Attending a business meeting in casual clothes B. Committing a financial fraud C. Failing to greet a person you know D. Eating with the inappropriate cutlery in a social gathering E. Keeping a good friend waiting at a coffee shop
answer

b
question

A difference in the attitudes of people toward time in different cultures is an example of which of the following in individual cultures? A. Folkways B. Religious doctrines C. Mores D. Laws E. Social structures
answer

a
question

Which of the following statements is true of mores? A. Mores are actions of little moral significance. B. Violation of mores is generally not a serious matter. C. Social conventions regarding eating with the correct utensils is a good example of mores. D. Mores do not differ among cultures. E. Certain mores have been enacted into law.
answer

e
question

Which of the following statements is true about most Western societies? A. In Western societies social groups, rather than individuals, are the basic building blocks of social organization. B. The value systems of many Western societies emphasize individual achievement. C. In Western societies, the social standing of individuals is merely a function of who they work for. D. The emphasis on individuals in Western societies has led to a low level of entrepreneurial activity. E. It is easier to build and manage teams within organizations in Western societies.
answer

b
question

Which of the following is a dimension of social structure that is particularly important when explaining differences between cultures? A. The average income of the people who belong to a particular culture B. The dominant race and the gender in the society C. The extent to which work is viewed as more important than family D. The degree to which the society is stratified into classes or castes E. The degree to which a society supports multiple subcultures
answer

d
question

Which of the following is an implication of high degree of managerial mobility in societies that emphasize individualism? A. Reduced costs of doing business B. Increased managerial loyalty and commitment to an individual company C. Lack of company-specific experience, knowledge, and a network of contacts among managers D. Lack of exposure among employees to different ways of doing business E. Inability to apply good practices and techniques developed in one firm to other firms
answer

c
question

In the context of social structure, American society is characterized by a low degree of: A. social stratification. B. mobility between strata. C. entrepreneurial activity. D. managerial mobility. E. dynamism and innovation.
answer

a
question

The United Republic emphasizes individual performance and achievements in every sphere of society. Which of the following statements is true about the society of this country? A. The country suffers from a low degree of dynamism and innovation. B. The country has a low degree of managerial mobility. C. There is a low degree of entrepreneurial activity in the country. D. The employees in this country will lack loyalty and commitment to a company. E. Managers in such a country have highly developed company-specific skills but they lack general skills.
answer

d
question

One of the downsides to the emphasis on individualism is that it: A. is difficult to build teams within an organization to perform collective tasks. B. does not support entrepreneurship and innovation. C. discourages managerial mobility. D. fails to foster general managerial skills required to find solutions to current problems. E. discourages competition among employees within a company.
answer

a
question

Which of the following statements is true about the business implications of Japanese society? A. The determination of social status of an individual is independent of the standing of the group to which he or she belongs. B. It is difficult to find self-managing work teams within Japanese organizations. C. It is more successful at pioneering radically new products and new ways of doing business than the United States. D. There is a low degree of movement from company to company among managers and workers. E. The managers and workers lack company-specific knowledge, experience, and a network of interpersonal business contacts.
answer

d
question

When compared to American society, Japanese society lacks: A. commitment to lifetime employment. B. emphasis on group memberships. C. self-managing work teams. D. close cooperation between individuals. E. dynamism and entrepreneurship.
answer

e
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If a society emphasizes the group as the primary unit of social organization, it is most likely to: A. encourage competition between the members of the group. B. expose managers to different ways of doing business. C. foster dynamism and entrepreneurship. D. discourage employees from moving from company to company. E. fail to facilitate self-managing work teams.
answer

d
question

Which of the following is a possible downside of emphasizing the primacy of group identification over individualism? A. It encourages managerial mobility between companies. B. It leads to a lack of dynamism and entrepreneurship. C. It hampers team building and cooperation. D. It raises the costs of doing business due to its adverse impact on managerial stability. E. It leads to the lack of company-specific skills and a network of contacts among managers.
answer

b
question

Which of the following statements is true about social stratification? A. The most rigid system of social stratification is a class system. B. Individuals are born into a particular social stratum. C. It is not possible for people to move between social strata. D. Britain is an example of a society where the caste system is predominant even today. E. Individuals born into a stratum toward the bottom of the social hierarchy tend to have better life chances.
answer

b
question

Which of the following is a closed system of stratification in which social position is determined by the family into which a person is born, and change in that position is usually not possible during an individual’s lifetime? A. Caste B. Merit C. Class D. Economic E. Bureaucratic
answer

a
question

Mountland Republic follows a system of social stratification that allows for flexibility in terms of social mobility. In this system of open stratification the status of a person is solely determined by his or her own socioeconomic achievements. Mountland Republic is most likely to be following what type of system of social stratification? A. Caste B. Class C. Religious D. Grade E. Bureaucratic
answer

b
question

In the country of Burnada, the citizens are restricted from moving out of the strata they are born into. Also, individuals are allowed to engage only in the occupation associated with their particular strata. The system of social stratification being practiced in Burnada can be identified as a: A. cluster system. B. caste system. C. merit-based system. D. class system. E. bureaucracy-based system.
answer

b
question

Which of the following statements is true about the class system in the United States when compared to the British class system? A. The class system in the United States is more pronounced than in Britain. B. In the United States, upward social mobility cannot normally be achieved in one generation. C. Class membership in the United States is mainly determined by an individual’s background and schooling. D. In American society, the extreme emphasis on individualism increases the impact of class background on business operations. E. Successful individuals from humble origins are highly respected in American society.
answer

e
question

Which of the following refers to a condition where people tend to perceive themselves in terms of their class background, and this shapes their relationships with members of other classes? A. Social mobility B. Class consciousness C. Cross-culture literacy D. Social awareness E. Class representativeness
answer

b
question

In the Republic of Cedia, people are extremely conscious about their social backgrounds. This in turn regulates their relationships with members of other classes. As a result of the heightened class consciousness: A. the mobility between the social classes of the Cedian society will increase. B. the level of industrial disruption and industrial disputes will be low. C. most of the population will perceive itself to be middle class. D. an antagonistic relationship will exist between management and labor classes. E. successful individuals, irrespective of their origins, will be highly respected.
answer

d
question

Which of the following is most likely to be the result of high degrees of class consciousness in societies? A. High levels of social mobility B. Healthy relationship between management and labor classes C. Low levels of industrial disruption D. Increase in the costs of production E. Greater opportunities for businesses to establish competitive advantage
answer

d
question

Which of the following is an ethical system that has influenced behavior and shaped culture in parts of Asia and is not considered as a religion? A. Confucianism B. Hinduism C. Islam D. Christianity E. Buddhism
answer

a
question

In 1904, who theorized that there was a relationship between Protestantism and the emergence of modern capitalism? A. Karl Marx B. Alfred Schmidt C. Max Weber D. Abraham Maslow E. Adam Smith
answer

c
question

According to Max Weber, Protestantism encouraged capitalism’s development by: A. believing that salvation occurred in the next world, rather than this world. B. encouraging the consumption of accumulated wealth by indulging in worldly pleasures. C. adhering to the hierarchical domination of religious and social life that characterized the Catholic Church. D. limiting an individual’s religious freedom. E. emphasizing the importance of hard work and wealth creation for the glory of God and frugality.
answer

e
question

Which of the following is a religion that prohibits the payment or receipt of interest, as it is considered to be usury? A. Hinduism B. Buddhism C. Christianity D. Confucianism E. Islam
answer

e
question

The rise of Islamic fundamentalism is, in part, a response to the: A. denial of equal rights for women and other minorities. B. movement in traditional Islamic societies toward modernization. C. narrowing gap between the rich and the poor. D. increasing standard of living in Islamic societies. E. widening gap between the highly developed and the less developed nations.
answer

b
question

Which of the following statements is true of Islam? A. Islam has roots in Confucianism. B. Islamic ethics support worldly gain and temporal power. C. Islam forbids the consumption of pork and alcohol. D. Islam makes a clear distinction between church and state. E. Unlike Christianity and Judaism, Islam is not a monotheistic religion.
answer

c
question

Muslim countries are likely to be receptive to international businesses as long as those businesses: A. behave in a manner that is consistent with Islamic ethics. B. do not hold affiliations with supranational organizations like the WTO or IMF. C. adopt western ideologies of doing business. D. generate income in the form of interest on the loans. E. do not undertake any charitable activities because Islam has very strict rules about the way these activities should be conducted.
answer

a
question

A major distinction between a conventional bank and an Islamic bank is that Islamic banks: A. are allowed to charge higher interest rates on loans. B. cannot accept private deposits. C. cannot pay or charge interest. D. are not subject to any form of law. E. are supposed to refrain from making a profit through any source.
answer

c
question

Mudarabah and the murabaha are: A. Islamic banking methods. B. Arabic words for interest and profit, respectively. C. banking practices that are prohibited by Islam. D. laws governing international trade and commerce in Islamic countries. E. laws limiting the right to private property.
answer

a
question

Which of the following is true about the Islamic banking method the mudarabah? A. A mudarabah contract is similar to a profit-sharing scheme. B. Under mudarabah, when an Islamic bank lends money to a business, it charges interest on the loan. C. It is the most widely used banking method among the world’s Islamic banks, primarily because it is the easiest to implement. D. It has been proven that a mudarabah contract discourages both long-term savings and long- term investment. E. A mudarabah contract uses a price markup method to make profits.
answer

a
question

Which of the following religions does not owe its founding to any one particular individual? A. Buddhism B. Hinduism C. Christianity D. Islam E. Confucianism
answer

b
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Dharma, karma, and nirvana are terms related to: A. Confucianism. B. Hinduism. C. Judaism. D. Islam. E. Protestantism.
answer

b
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Many of which of the following believe that the way to achieve nirvana—a state of complete spiritual perfection—is to lead a severe ascetic lifestyle of material and physical self-denial, devoting life to a spiritual rather than material quest? A. Christians B. Hindus C. Muslims D. Protestants E. Confucians
answer

b
question

Which of the following statements is true about Hinduism? A. Hinduism supported India’s caste system. B. Hinduism allows mobility between castes within an individual’s lifetime. C. Max Weber argued that Hinduism encourages entrepreneurial activity. D. Hindus do not believe in reincarnation, or rebirth into a different body, after death. E. Hinduism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama, an Indian prince.
answer

a
question

Max Weber argued that the ascetic principles embedded in which of the following do not encourage entrepreneurial activity in pursuit of wealth creation because it is perceived that such activities make the attainment of nirvana more difficult? A. Islam B. Hinduism C. Confucianism D. Protestantism E. Capitalism
answer

b
question

Hindus see mobility between castes as something that can be achieved through: A. appropriate schooling and occupation. B. individual economic achievements over the course of one’s lifetime. C. spiritual progression and reincarnation. D. hard work that results in gradual upward mobility over generations. E. offering prayer five times a day, and by refraining from the payment or receipt of interest.
answer

c
question

Mr. X finds it hard to dine with his American colleagues as his religion prohibits the consumption of pork and alcohol. He also quit his previous job in a bank because his religion considers the payment or receipt of interest as exploitative and unjust. According to this information, Mr. X is a follower of: A. Protestantism. B. Hinduism. C. Judaism. D. Confucianism. E. Islam.
answer

e
question

Ms. X is a follower of a religion that emphasizes that individuals should be judged solely by their spiritual achievements. The caste she belongs to is of the highest order in her religion, and hence is highly respected. She also firmly believes that she was born into the high caste as a result of her spiritual development in her previous life. Ms. X follows: A. Hinduism. B. Buddhism. C. Confucianism. D. Islam. E. Christianity.
answer

a
question

Which of the following was founded in India in the sixth century B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama, an Indian prince who renounced his wealth to pursue an ascetic lifestyle and spiritual perfection? A. Hinduism B. Buddhism C. Confucianism D. Islam E. Judaism
answer

b
question

What is the common aspect of the teachings of Hinduism and Buddhism? A. Both stress the afterlife and spiritual achievement rather than material progress. B. Both support the existence of a caste system. C. Both advocate the same kind of extreme ascetic behavior. D. Both propagate the Noble Eightfold Path as a route for transformation. E. Both condemn the payment or the receipt of interest on loans and deposits.
answer

a
question

Which of the following statements is true about Buddhism? A. Buddhism was founded in the fifth century B.C. by K’ung-Fu-tzu, in China. B. The emphasis on wealth creation that is embedded in Protestantism is not found in Buddhism. C. Buddhism advocates the kind of extreme ascetic behavior that is encouraged by Hinduism. D. Like Hinduism, Buddhism also supports the caste system. E. Unlike Hinduism, Buddhism does not stress afterlife and spiritual achievement.
answer

b
question

Mr. X follows a religion that does not propagate the caste system. Also, his religion emphasizes right seeing, thinking, speech, action, living, effort, mindfulness, and meditation as a route for spiritual transformation. According to this information, Mr. X can be considered a: A. Hindu. B. Buddhist. C. Confucian. D. Sikh. E. Muslim.
answer

b
question

For more than 2,000 years until the 1949 communist revolution, which of the following, which teaches the importance of attaining personal salvation through right action, was the official ethical system of China? A. Maoism B. Feng Shui C. Confucianism D. Shintoism E. Buddhism
answer

c
question

Which of the following is a nonreligious ethical system principally followed in China, Korea, and Japan? A. Shinto B. Buddhism C. Judaism D. Confucianism E. Hinduism
answer

d
question

Which of the following is not concerned with the supernatural, has little to say about the concept of a supreme being or an afterlife, and believes that loyalty to one’s superiors is an absolute obligation? A. Buddhism B. Christianity C. Hinduism D. Confucianism E. Islam
answer

d
question

Which of the following statements is true of Confucianism? A. Confucianism is a religion principally followed in India, Korea, and Japan. B. Confucianism preaches about the supernatural, the concept of a supreme being, and an afterlife. C. Confucian ethics raise the costs of doing business in China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. D. Conflict between management and labor tends to be high in the countries that follow Confucianism. E. In Confucian thought, loyalty to one’s superiors is regarded as a sacred duty.
answer

e
question

China Innovation Inc. is a devout follower of Confucian ethics. Hence, it hires people who live by similar principles. Which of the following is most likely to be a characteristic of this company? A. The conflict between management and labor will be high. B. The company’s management will expect blind loyalty from the workers. C. It will often indulge in violations of business agreements. D. The cost of doing business will be low for those companies that enter into a business with it. E. It will not have any relationship networks that are supported by reciprocal obligations.
answer

d
question

In a Confucian culture, loyalty of the subordinates to their superiors should be: A. blind in nature. B. reciprocated by the superiors by bestowing blessings on them. C. free of expectations of reward and personal gain. D. aimed at attaining spiritual perfection. E. based on the superiors’ spiritual achievements.
answer

b
question

Which of the following Confucian ethics is central to the Chinese concept of guanxi? A. Holding all material possessions in trust for God B. Renunciation of the material world C. Devoting life to a spiritual quest D. Reciprocal obligations E. Individual progress
answer

d
question

A person seeking and receiving help through a guanxi network is: A. liable to a social sanction if he or she does not reciprocate when called upon. B. considered to be disloyal to his or her superiors. C. free from reciprocal obligations. D. not a follower of Confucian ethics. E. hesitant to commit to cooperative ventures.
answer

a
question

Which of the following is the most widely spoken language in the world, and is increasingly becoming the language of international business? A. Chinese B. French C. English D. Spanish E. German
answer

c
question

Chinese is the mother tongue of the largest number of people, but English is the most widely spoken language in the world. This indicates that: A. many people speak English as a second language. B. many native English speakers are learning Chinese. C. the population of native English speakers exceeds that of China. D. Chinese will soon overtake English as the most widely spoken language. E. Chinese is increasingly becoming the language of international business.
answer

a
question

Which of the following is an aspect of nonverbal communication? A. Grammar B. Punctuation C. Speech tone D. Personal space E. Voice modulation
answer

d
question

Which of the following statements best defines personal space? A. It is the amount of distance to be maintained from the audience in order to be audible to them. B. It is a psychological phase wherein a person has free flowing thoughts. C. In ergonomics, it is the minimum amount of space required by an average employee in order to work efficiently. D. It is the comfortable amount of distance between you and someone you are talking with. E. It is the amount of space a country has per person and is arrived at by dividing the country’s total geographical area by its total population.
answer

d
question

When schools emphasize respect for others, obedience to authority, honesty, neatness, being on time, and use a grading system, they are: A. teaching children to be noncompetitive. B. impinging on fundamental freedoms and values. C. indirectly teaching cultural values and norms. D. indirectly creating a rigid caste system. E. unnecessarily deviating from formal education.
answer

c
question

The recent trend to outsource information technology jobs to countries such as India indicates that: A. the availability of unskilled labor has increased in these countries. B. these countries have benefited by moving toward communism. C. a good education system is a determinant of national competitive advantage. D. the availability of a pool of unskilled labor has been reduced in Western countries. E. these countries are taking advantage of their latitudinal location.
answer

c
question

Managers at the Blue Dragon Inc., an international company with operations in China and the United States, are often heard complaining about the difficulties in achieving synergy and cooperation between the employees of both the countries. On extensive research it was concluded that the cultural differences between these countries, which resulted in different work- related values, caused the lack of cooperation. In order to effectively tackle this problem, Blue Dragon Inc. should: A. vary its management processes and practices to account for these differences. B. adopt the host country’s management processes and practices in both countries. C. opt to exit one of the countries to avoid a conflict. D. provide incentives to the employees based only on their individual performance. E. adopt the home country’s management processes and practices in both countries.
answer

a
question

Who initially isolated four dimensions—power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism versus collectivism, and masculinity versus femininity—that he claimed summarized different cultures? A. Abraham Maslow B. B. F. Skinner C. Geert Hofstede D. Michael Porter E. Max Weber
answer

c
question

Which of the following statements is true with regard to Geert Hofstede’s cultural dimensions? A. In societies where collectivism was emphasized, the ties between individuals were loose. B. Low power distance cultures were found in countries that let inequalities grow over time into inequalities of power and wealth. C. Members of high uncertainty avoidance cultures had a strong need for rules and regulations. D. In masculine cultures, little differentiation was made between men and women in the same job. E. Members of low uncertainty avoidance cultures placed a premium on job security, career patterns, and retirement benefits.
answer

c
question

The natives of the Republic of Coastland are always prepared to take risks and they also demonstrate less emotional resistance to change. Apart from these characteristics, the ties between people are loose, sex roles are less sharply distinguished, and inequalities of power and wealth are discouraged in the country. According to this information, the Republic of Coastland most likely demonstrates: A. collectivism. B. masculinity. C. low uncertainty avoidance. D. high power distance. E. class consciousness.
answer

c
question

.According to Hofstede, in societies where which of the following was emphasized, ties between individuals were tight. A. individualism B. collectivism C. femininity D. low uncertainty avoidance E. low power distance
answer

b
question

Which of the following is a characteristic of high uncertainty avoidance cultures? A. They do not place importance on job security, career patterns, retirement benefits, and so on. B. They allow a manager to tightly control subordinates’ initiatives. C. They demonstrate less emotional resistance to change. D. They are characterized by a greater readiness to take risks. E. They oppose the use of rules and regulations to exercise control over individuals.
answer

b
question

A country characterized with low uncertainty avoidance and low masculinity will: A. place a premium on job security and career progression for both men and women. B. support stringent managerial control and competition between men and women. C. be less resistant to change and less distinguishing between men and women in the same job. D. have a strong need for rules and exertion of power in the society and gender egalitarianism. E. oppose risk-taking and gender egalitarianism.
answer

c
question

Which of the following statements is true of Geert Hofstede’s work on cultural dimensions? A. His power distance dimension looked at the relationship between gender and work roles. B. His work fails to consider that many countries have more than one culture. C. According to him, high uncertainty avoidance cultures were less emotionally resistant to change. D. His findings are inconsistent with standard Western stereotypes about cultural differences. E. He and his associates argued that Confucianism is not good for economic growth.
answer

b
question

Which of Hofstede’s dimensions focused on how a society deals with the fact that people are unequal in physical and intellectual capabilities? A. individualism versus collectivism B. power distance C. uncertainty avoidance D. masculinity versus femininity E. Confucian dynamism
answer

b
question

Which of the following is a criticism of Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions? A. Hofstede has ignored the one-to-one correspondence between culture and the nation-state. B. Most of Hofstede’s findings are in direct conflict with standard Western stereotypes. C. Hofstede assumes that most countries have more than one cultural dimension. D. Certain social classes were excluded from Hofstede’s work sample. E. Hofstede’s informants belonged to several different industries, companies, and countries hence his research lacks standardization.
answer

d
question

Hofstede’s fifth dimension of Confucian dynamism captures: A. how a society deals with the fact that people are unequal in physical and intellectual capabilities. B. the relationship between an individual and his or her fellows along with the degree to which individual achievement and freedom are emphasized. C. the extent to which different cultures socialized their members into accepting ambiguous situations and tolerating uncertainty. D. attitudes toward time, persistence, ordering by status, protection of face, respect for tradition, and reciprocation of gifts and favors. E. the extent to which sex roles are differentiated and values such as achievement and power are emphasized.
answer

d
question

A decade ago the government of Weinsland decided to liberalize the country’s economy. As a result, today the country is experiencing rapid economic advancement and societal changes that are favorable for international business. Which of the following changes is most likely to occur in Weinsland? A. The country will exhibit more need for social and material support structures built on collectives. B. As the country gets richer, there will be a shift in the society from “traditional” to “secular rational” values. C. As the country gets richer, there will be a shift in the society from “well-being” to “survival” values. D. The people in the country will give more importance to collectivism than to individualism. E. The country, to further facilitate globalization, will commit to authoritarian ideologies.
answer

b
question

Ceria Republic is a country that has achieved rapid economic growth and prosperity over the last couple of decades as a result of globalization. Hence, the country is most likely to see a cultural shift away from: A. greater collectivism. B. greater economic freedom. C. well-being values. D. secular rational values. E. cultural convergence.
answer

a
question

Survival values typically stress the importance of: A. diversity in the society. B. economic and physical security. C. self-expression. D. participation in political processes. E. capitalism.
answer

b
question

The distinctive culture of Wengiston has been losing its predominance among the citizens of the country. This is due to the fact that the people of Wengiston are extensively adopting certain universally accepted values and norms. This behavior of the people in Wengiston demonstrates: A. ethnocentrism. B. the convergence hypothesis. C. egocentrism. D. Confucian dynamism. E. social mobility.
answer

b
question

Janet believes that the cultural group she belongs to is superior and is hence highly intolerant toward employees from the cultures of other countries. This behavior of Janet is known as: A. cultural convergence. B. Confucian dynamism. C. ethnocentrism. D. ethnic gloss. E. class consciousness.
answer

c
question

Which of the following best exemplifies ethnocentrism? A. Sarah believes that her opinions and interests are superior to that of her siblings. B. Nicole is highly tolerant toward different cultures and is also keen on learning different languages. C. Bryan’s belief in the superiority of his culture has resulted in conflicts with his colleagues from different countries. D. Emilio is in an ethical dilemma as he has been given the responsibility of deciding whether or not to hire his under-qualified cousin. E. Galaxy Inc. has been accused of using legal but unethical ways to gain access into the markets of less developed countries.
answer

c

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