Ch 30-33 Review – Flashcards

question
How long was Gorbachev in power as leader of the Soviet Union, developing the policies he hoped would revitalize the nation, but instead accelerated its breakup in 1991?
answer
6 years
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Which came FIRST in the sequence of developments that brought sweeping changes in the communist world in the late 1980s and early 1990s?
answer
Free elections gave non-communists a majority in the Polish parliament
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For how many years did the Soviet Armed forces interfere in the war in Afghanistan before they were withdrawn in 1988?
answer
8 years
question
For how many years was Russia under communist control?
answer
74
question
In which decade of the 20th century did the Soviet Union collapse?
answer
1990s
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"year of democracy"
answer
1989
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Which of the following events in the Soviet Union's attempt to control its satellite countries occurred LAST?
answer
Solidarity is outlawed in Poland
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the Brezhnev Doctrine asserted that the Soviet Union would
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interfere in Eastern European nations to preserve communist ruleseek a disarmament agreement with NATO
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Many people in the Soviet Union were reluctant to open their own business or operate their own farms under Gorbachev's perestroika because
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the economic changes were inconsistent with communist theorythey feared the government might reverse itself and reimpose controls
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Which of the following CORRECTLY states Yeltsin's political bias?
answer
Yeltsin was a democratic reformer seeking to avoid violence
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Nikia Khrushchev became the leader of the Soviet Union
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after a power struggle during which others lost influence
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Khrushchev surprised the world and the Soviet people in 1956 when he made a speech before the Communist Party Congress denouncing
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Stalin
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The LONGEST period of power between the death of Stalin and the collapse of the Soviet Union was held by
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Brezhnev
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In 1968, Brezhnev ordered the Soviet army and troops of other Eastern European nations to crush a liberal communist regime in
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Czechoslovakia
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In 1980, Brezhnev sent in Soviet troops to assist a pro-communist government threatened by rebels in
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Afghanistan
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"glasnost"
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citizens and the press were free to criticize the government
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"Perestroika"
answer
economy
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Relations between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. improved in 1987 when Presidents signed the INF nuclear
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eliminate all short and intermediate-range nuclear missiles
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In 1988, Gorbachev ended an unpopular Soviet military involvement by
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withdrawing from Afghanistan
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The FIRST person of Russia elected directly by the people in relatively free elections was
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Boris Yelstin
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The attempt in August 1991 to remove Gorbachev from power was led by
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Communist Party and military leaders
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Renamed St. Petersburg in 1991, what was the name of the city during the communist era?
answer
Leningrad
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The Commonwealth of Independent States is an association of
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twelve of the nations of the former Soviet Union
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Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as president of the Soviet Union in December 1991 because
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the U.S.S.R. was dissolved in Dec 1991
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The three-man ruling group that took power in the Soviet Union when Stalin died
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Malenkov, Molotov, and Beria
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Khrushchev's power in the U.S.S.R. weakened when he was forced beck down from his plans to
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Cuba
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Khrushchev's leadership of the U.S.S.R. ended when
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the Communist Party leadership voted to replace him
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The failure of Soviet agricultural policy under Khrushchev and Brezhnev was demonstrated by
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the need to import grain from the U.S. and other nation
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Solidarity, the first trade union organization in Eastern Europe to become an effective force, was in
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Poland
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Upon his death, Brezhnev was succeeded as leader of the Communist Party by
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Yuri Andropov
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Mikhail Gorbachev was the FIRST leader of the Soviet Union who was
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born into communism after the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution
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Which policy of a communist leader in earlier Soviet history is "perestroika" most similar to?
answer
NEP
question
All of the following are aspects of Gorbachev's plan to restructure the economy, EXCEPT
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barring other nations from investing Soviet business enterprises
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Perestroika failed to improve the Soviet economy for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT
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the lack of interest
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The Soviet economy in the late 1980s and early 1990s was characterized by all of the following problems, EXCEPT
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increased central government direction of the economy
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The FIRST nation in Eastern Europe to hold free, democratic elections in over 50 years was
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Poland
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Gorbachev restructured the government of the Soviet Union between 1988 and 1990 by
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replacing the Supreme Soviet with the Congress of People's Deputies
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Before the attempted coup in 1991, Gorbachev responded to the demands of the republics within the Soviet Union for greater independence by
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negotiating a Union Treaty for a looser confederation of the republics
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The FIRST of the former republics of the Soviet Union to be recognized as completely independent
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were the Baltic state of
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The people of Russia looked to Boris Yeltsin for leadership instead of Mikhail Gorbachev in late 1991 bc
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Yeltsin had been elected by the people as president of Russia
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Communist gov't's surrendered one-party control in 1989 and called for free elections in all of the nations EXCEPT
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Yugoslavia
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The most violent political change in Eastern Europe took place in 1989 with the revolutionary overthrow and execution of Nicolae Ceausescu
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Romania
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The FIRST step toward the reunification of Germany took place in November 1989 when
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the Berlin Wall was opened and free entry to West Berlin was allowed
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Under what conditions was Germany reunified?
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East Germany was absorbed into Federal Republic of Germany
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The Warsaw Pact, the military alliance of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe,
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was dissolved in 1991
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The three Slavic republic that took the final step that broke up the Soviet Union by creation the Commonwealth of Independent States in December 1991 were
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Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus
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Which of the three nations of the former Soviet Union have NOT joined the CIS?
answer
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
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Slovenia was able to declare its secession from Yugoslavia and its independence in 1991 EXCEPT
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the population of Slovenia is greater than that of the remaining republics
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Second nation to develop an atomic bomb was
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the Soviet Union
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The U.S. submarine was the first to
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travel under the ice cap at the North Pole
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ICBMs
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long-range nuclear weapons-carrying missiles
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SLBMs are launched from
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submarines
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SALT I
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an agreement to limits on nuclear missiles
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START II is a treaty that
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reduces the number of nuclear-armed missiles held by the U.S. and Russia
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Sputnik
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man-made satellite placed into orbit
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Cloned animals are
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exact genetic duplicates of a cell-donor animal
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MIRVs
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missile warheads containing many nuclear bombs
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ABMs are designed to
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destroy ICBMs that are approaching
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The greatest threat to wildlife is
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destruction of habitat
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A nuclear arms race began in
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1949
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"space race"
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1957
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"oil crisis"
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1973
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Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty sought to
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prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to nations that did not already have them
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In what year was the Truman Doctrine announced?
answer
1947
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The commemoration of the Berlin Airlift in 1998 marked which anniversary of the historic event?
answer
50th
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For how many years did the Berlin Wall remain standing?
answer
28 years
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How many years did the Cold War last?
answer
45 years
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The nation that suffered the GREATEST losses in lives and property damage during WWII was
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the U.S.S.R.
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Holocaust
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planned extermination of Jews in Nazi death camps
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After WWII, Germany was divided into 4 occupation zones with a zone each for Great Britain, Soviet Union, U.S., and
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France
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Peace treaties were signed in 1947 with all of the following Axis nations, EXCEPT
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Austria
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"iron curtain"
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barriers to prevent travel and communication between Eastern and Western Europe
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Under its foreign policy of containment, the U.S. promised to
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prevent further expansion of Soviet domination of other nations
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All of the following nations received Marshall Plan aid from the U.S., EXCEPT
answer
Poland
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President Tito of Yugoslavia was able to resist pressures from the Soviet Union in 1948 to become a Soviet Satellite state because
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there were no Soviet troops in Yugoslavia
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The only non-communist nation in the Balkans in 1948 was
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Greece
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The Charter of the United Nations was adopted
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in the year WWII ended
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The Security Council of the United Nations CURRENTLY has how many members?
answer
15
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Which of the major organs of the United Nations has had its workload and jurisdiction considerably decreased since the United Nations began?
answer
Trusteeship Council
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The Secretariat of the United Nations is MOST similar to what part of a national government?
answer
executive branch
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Which of the following members of NATO was NOT a founding member in 1949?
answer
West Germany
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The Warsaw Pact is the Eastern European counterpart of
answer
NATO
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The Berlin Airlift was conducted in 1948 and 1949 in response to
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Soviet action barring road and rail traffic between Berlin and the West
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The Soviet and East German blockade of Berlin lasted for
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almost a year
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The capital city of West Germany when it became an independent nation was
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Bonn
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When South Korea was invaded by North Korea, direct military assistance to resist aggression came from
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the United Nations which called for members to send troops
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The estimated number of Jews killed in Europe during the Holocaust is
answer
6 million
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The concept of war crimes in international law
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became established at the end of WWII
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All of the following Nazi leaders committed suicide, EXCEPT
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Rudolf Hess
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The Declaration on Liberated Europe submitted by the U.S. at the Yalta Conference called for
answer
coalition interim governments in liberated nations and free elections
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In 1947, Turkey received U.S. military and economic aid under the
answer
Truman Doctrine
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The only Axis nation to gain territory under the peace treaties ending WWII was
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Bulgaria
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In 1946, the United Nations and the Western Allies forced the Soviet Union the withdraw from
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Iran
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The Cominform was established by the Soviet Union to
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aid communist parties in West European nations
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The Soviet Union applied pressures on Turkey to
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share control of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits
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The nations of Eastern Europe did NOT apply for Marshall Plan aid because
answer
the Soviet Union
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All of the following nations were original members of NATO, EXCEPT
answer
Ireland
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The Berlin Airlift demonstrated that
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the U.S. was committed to the defense of Berlin against the U.S.S.R.
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The Soviets did not shoot down U.S. cargo planes flying across East Germany during the Berlin Airlift because the Soviet
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policy-makers were unwilling to take the risk of a military response from the U.S.
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The FIRST chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany when it was established in 1949 was
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Konrad Adenauer
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In the years following the death of Stalin, relations between the Soviet Union and the Western powers
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improved for a while, but then became more strained
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The Korean War ended after three years of fighting in
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an armistice
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North Korea was assisted in its war with South Korea by the armed forces of
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Communist china
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The Soviet Union, Great Britain, the U.S., and France signed a peace treaty in 1955 with
answer
Austria
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"spirit of Geneva"
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friendly relations at a summit meeting of U.S.S.R. and Western leaders
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The president of the United States who attended summit meetings in 1955 and 1960 and who hosted Khrushchev during a visit to the United States was
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Dwight Eisenhower
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The Berlin Wall was built by the East Germans and the Soviet Union to
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stop the flood refugees leaving East Germany for the West via West Berlin
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Which East European government, following anti-Soviet demonstrations in 1956, chose a leader opposed by the U.S.S.R. .......
answer
Poland
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Soviet tanks and troops were sent to crush a democratic, anti-communist revolution in 1956 in
answer
Hungary
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During the Soviet suppression of the revolution in Hungary in 1956, the United Nations
answer
condemned the U.S.S.R. and called for Soviet withdrawal
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The communist nation in Eastern Europe that broke with the Soviet Union and became politically and philosophically allied with Communist China was
answer
Albania
question
How many voted are needed to pass resolutions on issues of importance in the Security Council of the United Nations?
answer
9 votes, including those of the permanent members
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Why are three of the five permanent members of the Security Council from Europe?
answer
They were among the major allies that defeated Germany and Japan in WWII
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The United Nations has been MOST successful in
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ending fighting between small nations
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A United Nations agency that specializes in developing programs to improve nutrition and the production of farms, forests, and fisheries is the
answer
FAO
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One of the MAJOR successes of the ECOSOC of the United Nations has been to
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eradicate smallpox through vaccinations in less-developed nations
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The United Nations has been involved in a number of Arab-Israeli conflicts in the Middle East by
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sending peacekeeping forces to supervise cease-fire agreements
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The justices of the International Court of Justice are
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elected by the General Assembly and Security Council of the U.N.
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Under international law, the open oceans are
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free to be used by any nation's merchant or naval vessels
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Describe proxy wars
answer
Conflicts in which the rival superpowers financed and armed competing factions or parties
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The "Brazilian Solution" refers to
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a combination of dictatorship, violent repression, and government promotion of industrialization
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Describe the socialist reforms that Salvador Allende sought to implement?
answer
redistribute wealth from the elite and middle classes to the poor
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Describe the "Dirty War"
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The Argentinian military fought for 7 years against terrorism
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Which United States president worked to re-establish Panamanian sovereignty in the Canal Zone?
answer
Jimmy Carter
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The "Contras" were
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Anti- Sanolinists Nicaraguans financed by both legal and illegal funds provided by the Reagan administration
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A poor policy decision by the Argentinean military junta that precipitated its collapse was the
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seizure of the Falkland islands and calling them the " Malvinas" from Great Britain
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In 1982, _____________ could not make its debt payments, which triggered a world financial crisis.
answer
Mexico
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Describe the life of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?
answer
monarch of Iran, that opposed Western cultures and called U.S a " Great Satan" opposed to Islam
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Describe the Iran-Contra deal?
answer
The answer on the test is D
question
Which country was engaged in an "unwinnable war" in 1978 with Afghanistan?
answer
Soviet Union
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Describe the "Asian Tigers?"
answer
Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore that created rapid economic growth in their nations
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All of the Newly Industrialized Economies (NIEs) share the characteristic of having
answer
disciplined and hardworking labor forces, and all heavily invested in education
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Explain the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, China
answer
began to permit foreign investment and land wasn't privatized and the state became less lenient on the economy.
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How did the Chinese government respond to the protests that culminated in Tiananmen Square?
answer
Tanks pushed into the square and killed hundreds, perhaps thousands
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Describe the conditions of the Communist states by the 1980s and 1990s?
answer
deep divisions had appeared among communist states
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Describe the policies of perestroika and glasnost. Who made them and why?
answer
Mikhail Gorbachev made them to address long- standing economic problems and popular discomfort
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Describe "Solidarity"s
answer
a labor union that enrolled 9 million members and protest against the Soviet Union.
question
The playwright who was elected president of Czechoslovakia in 1990 was
answer
Vaclav Havel
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East Germany was united with West Germany in what year
answer
1990
question
What powerful force ultimately caused the USSR to dissolve?
answer
a coup against Gorbachev and communism in Russia was botched
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The result of the hard line Communist coup against Gorbachev was that
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disgust with communism boiled over
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The Soviet Union was dissolved in what year
answer
1991
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The cause of the Persian Gulf War was
answer
Saddam Hussein wishing to invade Kuwait
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In 1798, Thomas Malthus argued that
answer
unchecked population growth would outstrip food supply
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Societies that have made the "demographic transition" have
answer
Lowered fertility rates and reduced mortality
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Developing nations that sponsored pro-nationalist policies often believed the
answer
larger populations increased national powers
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Where do most people infected with the HIV virus live?
answer
less- developed regions
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What explains the low birthrates of older industrial nations?
answer
higher levels of female education and employment, material value of consumer culture, access to contraception and abortion
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Which countries has a declining life expectancy?
answer
In eastern Europe, the former soviet bloc
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What two nations account for approximately one third of the world's population?
answer
India and China
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Older industrial countries such as Sweden suffer from a population burden of
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an aging population and declining labor pool that makes it less competitive
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Because Japan has the oldest population of any industrial nation, it has
answer
invested heavily in technological solutions to the problem of its aging population
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Increases in global immigration are due in large part to
answer
intractable poverty and growing population
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Despite the unprecedented global economic growth since 1945, the majority of the world's population
answer
remains in poverty
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The growing gap between rich and poor nations is exemplified by the fact that one billion people in the world
answer
lived on less than $500 a year in 2001
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In the United States greater wealth inequality was in part to
answer
tax reforms of Ronald Reagen and George W. Bush and 1990s stock market born
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Internal migration in developing nations resulted in
answer
Shantytowns round major cities
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Although immigrants from developing nations bring many benefits to a new country, they
answer
ethnic and racial tensions in host nation
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Anti-immigrant feelings in industrialized nations are mostly due to
answer
The answer on the test is B
question
How has technological innovation after World War II changed our world?
answer
it increased productivity, disseminated human creativity, and altered the way people live/work/ play
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As Western economies recovered from World War II, most
answer
consumers wanted producers that reduced their workloads or provided entertainment
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The technology that best symbolizes the innovations of the last fifty years is
answer
the computer
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The primary agent of technological change is the
answer
The answer on the test is C
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Which country has arguably the worst environmental record?
answer
Soviet Union
question
Describe some efforts to preserve the environment
answer
- The clean air act - The clean water act - The endangered Species Act
question
Explain the phrase "iron curtain"
answer
A watchword for the Cold War coined by Winston Churchill.
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Explain what the Cold War was
answer
The state of political tension and military rivalry between the U.S and its allies and the Soviet Union and its satellites.
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Explain what the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was
answer
Military alliances created in 1949 by the U.S and its allies against the Soviet Union.
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Why was the World Bank created
answer
To provide funds for reconstructing Europe and helping needy countries after the war.
question
Explain the Marshall Plan
answer
It provided 12.5 billion in aid to friendly European nations to support reconstruction.
question
The success of the European Economic Community, or Common Market, is evident through
answer
Their overtaking the U.S in industrial production.
question
In the Soviet Union there was a post war economic recovery followed by
answer
A less responsive and efficient economy and low production of consumer goods.
question
In order to resist Soviet pressure, the Truman Doctrine offered military aid to
answer
Turkey and Greece
question
The Soviet counterpart to NATO was called the
answer
Warsaw Pact
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Explain the causes of the Korean War
answer
Communist North Korea invaded non-communist South Korea, the South was supported by the UN.
question
The Korean War was limited to the Korean peninsula because
answer
The U.S feared that going into China might prompt the Soviet Union to retaliate.
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Restrictions on U.S. military operations during the Vietnam War were designed to
answer
To prevent a wider war with Chinese involvement and possible nuclear confrontation.
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When the United States discovered the Soviet Union had deployed nuclear missiles in Cuba in 1962, it sparked
answer
Fear and preparation of invasion of Cuba.
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Explain the Helsinki Accords
answer
Final act of the CSCE that affirmed that no boundaries should be changed by military force.
question
What event was the catalyst for the space race
answer
The Soviet Union placed a small Sputnik Satellite into orbit around Earth
question
Nations became independent at the end of World War II primarily because of
answer
Anti-imperialist and independence movement caused WWII victors losing nearly all imperial possessions
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Which ways were India and Pakistan different?
answer
Pakistan was religious defined and fell under dictatorship, while Secular India was a republic. India was larger and had more resources
question
In 1947 India and Pakistan went to war over the
answer
Kashmir
question
The Dutch East Indies are known by what other name
answer
Indonesia
question
After World War II, France considered Algeria to be
answer
An actual part of France
question
Describe the causes and effects of the French-Algerian War?
answer
Many angry colonist left to France undermining the Algerian economy, Algeria kept economic ties to France.
question
The first British colony in West Africa to gain independence was
answer
Egypt and Libya
question
Kenya faced a difficult task in winning independence mostly because of
answer
British opposition including banning all protests and imprisoning leaders
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Independence in French West Africa came slowly because of
answer
The promises of Charles de Gaulle and African Patriotism
question
South African governments used policies of racial segregation called
answer
Apartheid
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Which leader of the African National Congress organized guerrilla resistance in 1960?
answer
Nelson Mandela
question
The United States overthrew the Guatemalan government in 1954 because
answer
Fears/reports that Jacobo Arbenz was becoming friendly to communism
question
In 1956, 25 percent of Cuban national income was derived from
answer
Sugar
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The Cuban government was overthrown by Fidel Castro mostly because
answer
Popular discontent with Batista
question
The Bay of Pigs invasion
answer
Was an effort to overthrow Castro, but JFK sent less air support then what was planned
question
The goal of Castro and his revolution was to
answer
Break the economic and political power of the U.S in Cuba
question
Third World nations were
answer
Nations that were neutral in the East/West struggle
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In 1956, Israel, Great Britain, and France joined together to
answer
Invade Egypt, overthrew Nasir to regain the Suez Canal and protect Israel
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The Cold War isolated and excluded Japan from world political issues, helping Japan to
answer
Rebuild their industries and engage in world commerce
question
Mao Zedong's 1958 Great Leap Forward was a plan designed to
answer
Vault China into the ranks of world industrial power by maximizing labor in small scale industry and collect civilization of agriculture
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The 1966 Chinese Cultural Revolution was initially intended to
answer
Kindle revolutionary fervor in a new generation to ward off the stagnation and bureaucratization of the USSR
question
Since World War II, the most important political issue in Arab countries has been the
answer
Struggle with Israel
question
Explain the created of Israel and its struggles with its Arab neighbors?
answer
The UN gave Jewish people a piece of land in Palestine to create Israel that Palestinians opposed
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Explain the Six Day War of 1967?
answer
Israel responded to threatening Egyptian military moves and won in 6 days
question
The superpowers didn't view the struggle between Israel and the Arab States as a vital concern until
answer
Oil became a political issue
question
The Egyptian-Israeli war in 1973 led directly to the
answer
Embargo of oil shipping the U.S
question
An example of new awareness for environmental issues in the United States was the
answer
-Creation of Earth day -Environmental Protection Agency -Hydroelectric Dams -Nuclear Power Plant
question
The hijackers on September 11, 2001
answer
targeted buildings that symbolized American government, military, and trade
question
The motives for the September 11, 2001 attacks include
answer
anger at American influence in the Middle East
question
What is globalization
answer
the growing global economic, cultural, and political integration and interaction
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The spread of democracy encourages
answer
political moderation
question
Which region(s) have made significant gains in extending democracy to people
answer
Eastern Europe and Latin America
question
After the death of Deng Xiaoping
answer
China has allowed greater freedom but not democracy
question
Democracy in Africa had "mixed results;" however, in 1994 South Africa
answer
elected Nelson Mandela and democracy was used to resolve conflicts
question
In the post Cold War era, international peacekeeping efforts have become complicated due to
answer
the autonomy of nation states.
question
The war in Bosnia in 1992 began when
answer
fighting erupted between Muslims, Catholics, and Orthodox groups in Yugoslavia
question
Efforts to eliminate people of a different ethnic group is called
answer
ethnic cleansing
question
What country eventually intervened to help the Bosnian Muslims
answer
United States
question
In 1994, the leaders of Rwanda
answer
committed genocide by inciting Hutu people to massacre the Tutsi
question
Why were major powers reluctant to intervene in conflicts
answer
They were afraid to become involved in long costly conflicts
question
The movement to restrict nuclear proliferation made progress in the 1960's and 1970s, but
answer
India and Pakistan tested nuclear weapons in 1998, North Korea continued weapons development secretly, China resumed nuclear weapons testing in 1992, and President Bush pushed for new nuclear weapon development
question
How are chemical and biological weapons different from nuclear weapons
answer
They are easily produced and hidden
question
What is the goal of terrorism
answer
to provoke harsh reprisals that would gain public sympathy
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What did Usama bin Laden do after being expelled from Saudi Arabia
answer
he moved operations to Sudan and then Afghanistan
question
Anti-American attacks prior to September 11, 2001 included bombing the
answer
United States Embassy in Kenya, United States Embassy in Tanzania, and U.S.S. Cole in port in Yemen
question
An example of the United States government's aggressive policy toward terrorism was
answer
the overthrow of the Taliban in Afghanistan
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In the 1990's, free trade appeared to be the best way achieve economic growth
answer
but also subjected markets to "busts" as well as "booms"
question
As investors increasingly put money in developing countries, the greatest beneficiary was
answer
China
question
In 2002, the European Union promoted economic growth and free trade by
answer
adopting a common currency, the Euro
question
The North American Free Trade Agreement
answer
eliminated tariffs among the United States, Canada, and Mexico
question
The World Trade Organization was founded to
answer
reduce trade barriers and enforce international trade agreements
question
Why does the World Trade Organization attract critics and protests
answer
It is dominated by the world's seven richest nations and Russia
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At the turn of the millennium, some Christians thought the end of the world was coming; this is called
answer
millenarianism
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Some Jews in Israel believe that God gave the Jews
answer
all the land included in the ancient Jewish kingdom
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Muslim frustration stems from the failure of
answer
modernization to improve their status and income
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Why do many Muslims hold an unfavorable opinion of the United States
answer
The United States supports Israel as well as undemocratic governments in the Muslim world
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The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights reflected
answer
agreement against racism and imperialism
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The Universal Declaration of Human Rights has most often been criticized because
answer
it ignores the values of non-Western cultures and religions
question
"NGOs" is an acronym for
answer
non-governmental organizations
question
Seventy percent of the people infected with AIDS live in
answer
Sub-Saharan Africa
question
Why did AIDS draw global attention from human rights advocates
answer
High mortality rates are association with poverty and expensive treatment
question
Warming caused by the earth's atmospheric gases is called the
answer
greenhouse effect
question
Which of the following is not one of the issues that were the focus of the International Women's Rights Conferences in Kenya and China
answer
equal access to jobs and education
question
At the International Women's Rights Conferences, non-Western women
answer
complained that Western women had narrow concerns and were condescending
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A universally acceptable women's rights agenda at the International Women's Right's Conferences
answer
proved elusive
question
Cultural imperialism has spread Western tastes and styles around the globe by using
answer
global marketing
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The most important factor in making Western culture available to the rest of the world was
answer
improved technology
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Television did not spread to most non-Western cultures until the
answer
1980s
question
The Internet is
answer
a linkage of academic, governmental, and business computer networks
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The post World War II decades were dominated by American cultural imperialism; however
answer
popular culture and products have become increasingly international
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The rising importance of English as a global second language has been due to the
answer
use of English in former British colonies and importance of the United States in world affairs and business
question
There was a small European population in Africa; however,
answer
they made a deep social and economic impact
question
What impact did Europeans have on African health care
answer
Although they claimed to improve it, colonialism usually worsened health care
question
Christian religions proved attractive in some parts of Africa because
answer
they established mission schools
question
In 1909, the African National Congress was founded by
answer
Western-educated lawyers and journalists
question
Before World War II, African nationalist movements were
answer
small and had little influence
question
World War II was most important for African independence movements because
answer
so many Africans served in Allied armies and learned new liberal ideas
question
Although much of India is fertile land, its agriculture suffered mostly because of
answer
drought
question
Among the many languages of India, the educated middle class communicated in
answer
English
question
The Indian Civil Service was considered one of the most ____________ bureaucracies of all time
answer
honest
question
In 1885, the Indian National Congress was founded by
answer
a small group of English-speaking Hindu professionals
question
Indian Muslims formed a group to protest Hindu dominance of India called the
answer
All-India Muslim League
question
When Indians defied the British and developed a steel industry, it
answer
inspired national pride and desire for self-rule
question
Indian nationalists during World War I supported Britain enthusiastically and
answer
expected that India would be granted independence after the war
question
Mohandas Gandhi was known to his followers as Mahatma, or
answer
"the great soul"
question
Gandhi's "unusual" political ideas included
answer
non-violence
question
Despite Gandhi's wealthy background, he
answer
attracted poor followers
question
Gandhi protested British violence and policies by
answer
fasting
question
During the 1920s, the British in India
answer
slowly gave Indians control over "national areas" such as education and the economy
question
When Indians revolted against colonial authorities at the beginning of World War II, the British government
answer
offered India its independence after the war
question
As India prepared for independence, the most serious problem was the
answer
struggle between Hindus and Muslims
question
The 1947 independence of Pakistan and India was
answer
marred by violence between Muslims and Hindus
question
In 1910, the most serious problem facing Mexico was
answer
the growing gap between rich and poor
question
One percent of the Mexican population owned
answer
85 percent of the land
question
The motto of General Porfirio Diaz during his thirty-four years if rule was
answer
"Liberty, order, progress"
question
The Mexican Revolution can be described as
answer
the work of many ambitious but limited leaders
question
What did Emiliano Zapata do with the land he seized
answer
returned it to the Indian villages
question
Which of the following is not one of the reasons that the Constitutionalists eventually won control in Mexico
answer
They had more soldiers than Zapata and Villa
question
The Mexican Revolution produced an "explosion" of creativity, for example, the
answer
paintings of Frida Kahlo
question
The National Revolutionary Party (PRN) in 1928 in Mexico
answer
created a forum for labor, peasants, and business
question
Argentina's government represented the interests of the oligarquia, which is
answer
a small group of wealthy land owners
question
Both Argentina and Brazil had
answer
a small but outspoken middle class
question
After World War I, radio communication in Latin America was controlled by
answer
a cartel of U.S., British, and French companies
question
The Depression of 1929
answer
caused Argentina and Brazil to veer toward authoritarian regimes
question
Varga's policy for industrialization of Brazil was not called
answer
mercantilism, "supply side" economics, decreasing returns to scale, or "demand side" economics
question
A consequence of industrialization of Brazil was
answer
ecological changes
question
In Argentina, Juan Perón was elected president in 1946 with the help of his
answer
wife, Eva Perón
question
Roots of Cold War
answer
-War time conferences -Different world views -Partition of Germany
question
Tehran Conference
answer
USSR was guaranteed to be the only power to liberate eastern Europe
question
Yalta Conference
answer
Germany would be divided into four zones controlled by U.S., France, Britain and USSR
question
Potsdam Conference
answer
Stalin wanted a "buffer zone" between Germany and USSR for protection against a future war
question
Soviet POV
answer
U.S. & Britain did not open a western front in Europe early enough in WWII; millions of Soviet soldiers died fighting the brunt of Nazi armies alone until mid-1944
question
US and Britain
answer
Froze Russia out of the atomic bomb project
question
Stalin
answer
seemed intent on creating in eastern Europe, Areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
question
US
answer
wanted democracy spread throughout the world with a strong international organization to maintain global peace
question
Partition of Germany
answer
USSR, U.S., Britain & France each occupied a part of Germany and theoretically would allow for German reunification once she was no longer a threat
question
reparations payments
answer
Soviet Union stripped East Germany of much of its resources as
question
U.S. and western Europeans
answer
believed the German economy was vital to the recovery of Europe
question
West Germany
answer
became an independent country when US, France and Britain gave back each of their zones
question
Marshall Plan
answer
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.(1948) massive transfer of aid money to help rebuild postwar Western Europe; was intended to bolster capitalist and democratic governments and prevent domestic communist groups from riding poverty and misery to power; the plan was first announced by Secretary of State George Marshall at Harvard's commencement in June 1947(1948) massive transfer of aid money to help rebuild postwar Western Europe; was intended to bolster capitalist and democratic governments and prevent domestic communist groups from riding poverty and misery to power; the plan was first announced by Secretary of State George Marshall at Harvard's commencement in June 1947U.S. sent a massive financial aid package of $13 billion to help war-torn Europe recover from the war
question
Berlin Crisis
answer
Soviets attempted to remove the Allies from Berlin by cutting off access to the city
question
Berlin during crisis
answer
partitioned into four sections, just as the whole of Germany had been partitioned after the war
question
NATO
answer
..., North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countriesFounded in response to the Berlin Crisis, ..., North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
question
Warsaw Pact
answer
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATOFormed by Soviet Union in response to West Germany joining NATO
question
Mao Zedong
answer
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.Communists in China led by _____ won the Chinese revolution
question
Peoples Republic of China
answer
commonly known as China, is the largest country in East Asia Mao Zedong beat Jiang Jiesh and gained control of the country he called it the Peoples Republic of China.a socialist republic ruled by the Communist Party of China under a single-party systemRed China also called _____ established after communist rev.
question
Communist victory in Chinese revolution
answer
Terrible blow to the U.S. policy of containment; the world's most populous country was now communist
question
north was communist, south was not
answer
After WWII, Korea divided
question
United Nations
answer
sent forces to push back communists during the Korean War
question
Result of Korean War
answer
cease-fire (still in existence today) reached in 1953 and the border was restored at the 38th parallel
question
Communist parties of eastern Europe
answer
established one-party states by 1948, with help of the Red Army and the KGB (Soviet secret police)
question
Berlin Wall
answer
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the WestA fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.East Germany built the ________around West Berlin rather than enforce the ultimatum to U.S. which effectively ended future crises over Berlin
question
Fidel Castro
answer
Cuba became a communist country in 1959 under the leadership of ______ and a staunch ally of the USSR
question
Cold War
answer
A struggle over political differences between nations carried on by methods short of a full-out war. The Cold War is the global power stubble between the US and the Soviet Union that lasted from 1945-1991. It wasn't only a conflict between political ideologies, but it was also a conflict based on economic and social aspects of each side's ideologies.
question
Negative Consequences of the Cold War
answer
The Cold War may have remained "cold," but it did put the world in danger during this time. The US and the Soviet Union tried to out power each other and show who's superior, which eventually lead to a mass build-up of nuclear weapons that could and almost have been used in this time. From both sides of the conflict, massive waves of propaganda were used by both sides to portray the other as the enemy. To add, citizens living in the Soviet Union and even in the United States lived in fear at this time. Not only from the nuclear threat, but it's also because the governments in these superpowers have been investigating all walks of life of its own citizens to check their loyalty to their country. If a person was suspected of siding with the "enemy," then there would be harsh punishments like being sent to Siberia (in the Soviet Union) or get blacklisted and sent to prison (in the USA). To add, in this 46 year stand-off, there had been smaller but major wars that occurred like the Korean War and Vietnam War that costed hundreds of thousands of lives from both soldiers to unarmed citizens. In addition, the Cold War is one of the minor effects of the recent conflicts in Ukraine and the current tensions between the relations of US and Russia.
question
Positive Consequences of the Cold War
answer
Despite this boiling conflict, some positives were brought by the Cold War. During the Cold War, the West developed NATO to combat and contain Soviet aggression and expansion. Now, this organization is still very active and helps struggling countries fight against terrorism. Also, we've already established that the Cold War was mainly the superpowers' attempt to outsmart and out power each other. So, because of this, the Space Race occurred and resulted in NASA, mankind stepping on the moon, and space exploration. Lastly, it may sound surprising, but the build-up of nuclear weapons may have actually kept the Cold War cold since the superpowers' know that a nuclear war would have no winner.
question
Communism
answer
A political ideology in which a government seeks equal distribution of wealth and ends all forms of private property..... in theory. However, in the world and history, there hasn't been a fully successful ....... country. This is because in a ......... society, private establishments are all maintained by the government, and this equals to money, which in a not perfect world, equals to greed. This explains why the leaders of ....... states are all wealthy and powerful, but the people had no sufficient money to even feed themselves. To add, if wealth is distributed equally, then why would would a person do their best effort if they don't get any credit. These mistakes may make us against ........, but ...... has its own benefits and capitalism, the opposite, has its own mistakes and benefits as well. Countries that had these ideals = Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, Cuba
question
Democracy
answer
A form of government in which the supreme power is vested or held by the people and exercised by them directly, like in a direct ...., or indirectly, like in a indirect or parliamentary ..... If its directly, the people are the majority that rules the government that the people elected. There are 3 branches, the judicial, legislative, and executive branch all working in unison to be "of the people, by the people, and for the people."
question
Containment
answer
A policy or process of preventing the expansion of a hostile pose: the US foreign policy followed during the Cold War that sought to prevent the expansion of Soviet communism. This is the reason why NATO is established and why the US fought in wars in Korea and Vietnam because they believed in the Domino Theory that if one nation (mostly in Southeast Asia) fell to communism, then the rest of Asia will follow as well.
question
Domino Theory
answer
The theory US officials believed that if one nation, regarding Southeast Asia, fell to communism, then the rest of Asia will follow. This is one of the main reasons why the US fought in Vietnam and Korea as part of their containment policy. To add, the US meddled with countries like the Philippines to prevent any communism from happening, but this resulted in both positive and negative (dictator ruling the country) consequences for that country.
question
Warsaw Pact
answer
A Soviet military alliance set up in 1955 in response to NATO. This alliance makes up the communist nations of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The Warsaw Pact officially marked the Iron Curtain. When the Cold War ended in 1991, most of the Warsaw Pact countries, except Russia, joined NATO.
question
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
answer
A military alliance formed in 1949 by the US and 11 other countries that are mainly in Western Europe to combat the growing expansion of Soviet communism and domination. The ..... countries agreed to help defend each other in case of an attack. Currently, this organization is the longest-running, largest, military alliance during peacetime. Right now, this organization is combatting the threat of terrorism worldwide after the attacks in 9/11.
question
United Nations
answer
An international organization located in New York City that was charted in 1945 to resolve conflicts between nations through diplomacy (not necessarily- .. forces fought in the Korean War). Currently, there are 193 nations in this organization. This organization doesn't only help countries resolve their differences but helps developing countries by having organizations link to this like the World Health Organization. Triva- This organization was created after WW2 as an improved version of the League of Nations, which was created after WW1 to prevent another war from happening. This didn't happen due to the Leagues drawbacks.
question
Red Scare
answer
A wave of anti-communist fear that swept the US after WW1 and again after WW2 in the 1950s. During the 1950s, America was so hysterical of communism that they started to blacklist all citizens from all walks of life. If you showed just a little disloyalty to the US back then, you could be blacklisted. This means your opportunities will be limited- i.e.-companies will not hire you because you're blacklisted.
question
House of Un-American Activities (HUAC)
answer
An organization created in the 1930s to combat the Red Scare. It almost fell into extinction during WW2, but at the end, it was revived by Congress, as America undergoes the Second Red Scare. During this time, this organization was lead by J.Parnell Thomas who, like McCarthy, became extreme against communism that he and his organization began to accuse innocent people. The HUAC and its chairman, Thomas, became involve in scandals like the Hollywood 10 and Chambers/Hiss Trial. *Part of the Red Scare*
question
McCarthyism
answer
A method of making vicious accusations without offering proof. This method was named after the Republican Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy. This senator was a person who accused people of being Communist if they showed a little disloyalty to the US government. No one dared speak against him because of his personality. *Part of the Red Scare*
question
Berlin Wall
answer
Constructed in 1961 by the communists to prevent the people from East Germany and East Berlin, the capital of East Germany, to migrate to West Berlin. West Berlin is part of East Berlin that is democratic and ruled by the Western Allies in WW2. This wall was heavily guarded and many attempts were made to escape to the West. Eventually, the wall collapsed both politically and physically in 1989. This wall is a strong symbol of communistic brutality and the Iron Curtain.
question
Iron Curtain
answer
A statement claimed by Winston Churchill to the actions the Soviets did to isolate their land and the Warsaw Pact countries. This statement is basically a metaphor of what the Soviets are doing to isolate themselves to the West-i.e. the Warsaw Pact, and their brutality for the people living inside this ........ Basically the ...... was an unclear economic and political border between the Warsaw Pact and most of the NATO countries.
question
38th Parallel
answer
A line of latitude that separates communist North Korea from South Korea after WW2. Before Japan surrendered, Korea has been its colony since 1910. After Japan surrendered, Korea was removed from Japanese control and were split between Soviet control, who established a puppet government (communist) under Kim-Il-Sung (grandfather of the Kim-Jung-Un, the current dictator of NK), and American control, who established an independent, democratic, and capitalist nation. That separation was called the .... After the Korean War, the borders almost remained near this line. The border of SK and NK has a gap called the Demilitarized Zone or DMZ, and this area is one of the most heavily defended border in the world.
question
Harry Truman
answer
On April 12th, 1945 immediately after Franklin Roosevelt's death, _______ ______ became president of the United States
question
atomic bomb
answer
With Roosevelt not allowing Truman in his meetings Truman was unaware of the plan to develop the ________ ________
question
United Nations, Nato
answer
although only having a high school diploma, his was able to lead the United States into the _____ _____ and _______ to promote peace ✌ throughout the world mets in New York
question
a) general assembly- includes the delegates from all member nations b) the security council- elected by the general assembly that has power to veto c) the secretariat- which is the center of the administration
answer
The United Nations is made up of three agencies:
question
veto
answer
The United Nations has not been very successful since any member of the security council can _______ anything that has been pass
question
tension and intense competition
answer
Russia and the United States entered into a cold war, a period of ________ and _____ ____ which occasionally acted up into conflict
question
puppet governments
answer
Between 1945 and 1948 Russia had set up _________ ____ in Eastern Europe
question
iron curtain
answer
The Russians had set up an "_______ _______ " a separation of communists countries and free democratic countries
question
Nato, US and Western European, communist
answer
______ was formed by Canada, The United States and ten ________ ______ nations who agreed to come to the aid if any were attacked by a ________ nation
question
Warsaw pact, communist
answer
The ______ ______ formed in 1955 made up of ______ countries agreed to defend each other
question
communist east Berlin, democratic West Berlin
answer
after WW2 Berlin was divided into ______ _____ _____ and ________ _____ ______
question
General Chiang Kai-Shek and Mao-tse-tung
answer
In china civil war broke out between _____ _______ ____ and communist leader _______- ________ - _____
question
Chiang Kai-Shek, mainland China
answer
The United States back _______ ____ _____ but the communist finally took control of _______ _____
question
Taiwan, Democratic
answer
Chiang Kai-Shek finally settled in ______ and formed a __________ government
question
Korea
answer
The greatest cold war conflict came in ________ in Asia
question
communist North Korea and Non communist South Korea
answer
After WW2 Korea was divided between ______ ____ _____ and ______ ____ _____ ____ (at the 38 parallel)
question
Douglas MacCarthur, United Nations Forces
answer
_____ _______, American hero of the Pacific War during WW2, was in command of the _____ _______ _______
question
South Korea, China
answer
North Korea invaded ______ _____ successfully but where thrown back by MacCarthur until communist _____ entered the conflict
question
Truman, stale mate
answer
Fearing war with China President _______ was content to settle for a ______ _____
question
33 thousand
answer
_____ _____ American Troops were killed or injured and the boundary at the 38th parallel remained unchanged
question
1959
answer
in ______ another conflict came into existence
question
Fidel Castro
answer
______ ____ overthrew general Batista and set up a communist dictartorship in Cuba
question
CIA and Cubans, Castro
answer
President Kennedy using the ________ and ________ who had fled from Cuba planned to attack and overthrow ________
question
Bay of Pigs
answer
The ______ ____ _____ as it became known was a total disaster
question
missiles with nuclear warheads
answer
In 1962 Russia placed _______ with ______ _____ in Cuba
question
Cuban Missile Crisis
answer
Called the _______ ____ ____ Kennedy ordered the Russians to remove the missile
question
blockade
answer
Kennedy also ordered a _________ not allowing anything in or out of Cuba
question
Khrushchev
answer
_______ dictator of Russia removed all the missile from Cuba
question
new deal, government
answer
Roosevelt's domestic program was called the _____ _____ , which was spending large sums of money from the ________ to give people jobs
question
conservatives
answer
The ________ did not agree with this policy
question
Republicans,Taft- Hartley
answer
______ later take control of congress and passed the ______-______ Act which was against unions
question
Right to work laws
answer
Some States pass ____ ____ _____ ______ allowing workers to work without joining a union
question
Red Scare
answer
After WW2 there was a period of time called ______ ______, the fear of communism in the United States
question
American Government
answer
Many people blamed workers in the _______ ______ for allowing communism to spread
question
American documents
answer
an Ex-American Congressman was accused of passing secret ______ ______ to Russia
question
statute of limitations, perjury
answer
He could not be tried because the _____ ____ _____ has expired but was sent to prison for lying under oath which is _______
question
Julius and Ethel Rosenburg
answer
Also in 1953 _______ and _____ ______ was executed for passing Atomic Secret Information to the Russians during WW2
question
McCarran Internal Security act
answer
Fearful of other security problems, the United States passed the ______ _____ ______ _____which made it easier for the government to combat espionage
question
William F. Buckley
answer
A staunch conservative _____ __. _____, wrote a best selling book when he graduated from Yale
question
God And Men at Yale, libel, political, and philosophy
answer
the book, ____ ___ ___ ___ ___, was a critique of the universality's _______, _________, _________
question
national review
answer
in 1955 Buckley founded the _____ _____, a magazine the promoted conservatives view points in America
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question
How long was Gorbachev in power as leader of the Soviet Union, developing the policies he hoped would revitalize the nation, but instead accelerated its breakup in 1991?
answer
6 years
question
Which came FIRST in the sequence of developments that brought sweeping changes in the communist world in the late 1980s and early 1990s?
answer
Free elections gave non-communists a majority in the Polish parliament
question
For how many years did the Soviet Armed forces interfere in the war in Afghanistan before they were withdrawn in 1988?
answer
8 years
question
For how many years was Russia under communist control?
answer
74
question
In which decade of the 20th century did the Soviet Union collapse?
answer
1990s
question
"year of democracy"
answer
1989
question
Which of the following events in the Soviet Union's attempt to control its satellite countries occurred LAST?
answer
Solidarity is outlawed in Poland
question
the Brezhnev Doctrine asserted that the Soviet Union would
answer
interfere in Eastern European nations to preserve communist ruleseek a disarmament agreement with NATO
question
Many people in the Soviet Union were reluctant to open their own business or operate their own farms under Gorbachev's perestroika because
answer
the economic changes were inconsistent with communist theorythey feared the government might reverse itself and reimpose controls
question
Which of the following CORRECTLY states Yeltsin's political bias?
answer
Yeltsin was a democratic reformer seeking to avoid violence
question
Nikia Khrushchev became the leader of the Soviet Union
answer
after a power struggle during which others lost influence
question
Khrushchev surprised the world and the Soviet people in 1956 when he made a speech before the Communist Party Congress denouncing
answer
Stalin
question
The LONGEST period of power between the death of Stalin and the collapse of the Soviet Union was held by
answer
Brezhnev
question
In 1968, Brezhnev ordered the Soviet army and troops of other Eastern European nations to crush a liberal communist regime in
answer
Czechoslovakia
question
In 1980, Brezhnev sent in Soviet troops to assist a pro-communist government threatened by rebels in
answer
Afghanistan
question
"glasnost"
answer
citizens and the press were free to criticize the government
question
"Perestroika"
answer
economy
question
Relations between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. improved in 1987 when Presidents signed the INF nuclear
answer
eliminate all short and intermediate-range nuclear missiles
question
In 1988, Gorbachev ended an unpopular Soviet military involvement by
answer
withdrawing from Afghanistan
question
The FIRST person of Russia elected directly by the people in relatively free elections was
answer
Boris Yelstin
question
The attempt in August 1991 to remove Gorbachev from power was led by
answer
Communist Party and military leaders
question
Renamed St. Petersburg in 1991, what was the name of the city during the communist era?
answer
Leningrad
question
The Commonwealth of Independent States is an association of
answer
twelve of the nations of the former Soviet Union
question
Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as president of the Soviet Union in December 1991 because
answer
the U.S.S.R. was dissolved in Dec 1991
question
The three-man ruling group that took power in the Soviet Union when Stalin died
answer
Malenkov, Molotov, and Beria
question
Khrushchev's power in the U.S.S.R. weakened when he was forced beck down from his plans to
answer
Cuba
question
Khrushchev's leadership of the U.S.S.R. ended when
answer
the Communist Party leadership voted to replace him
question
The failure of Soviet agricultural policy under Khrushchev and Brezhnev was demonstrated by
answer
the need to import grain from the U.S. and other nation
question
Solidarity, the first trade union organization in Eastern Europe to become an effective force, was in
answer
Poland
question
Upon his death, Brezhnev was succeeded as leader of the Communist Party by
answer
Yuri Andropov
question
Mikhail Gorbachev was the FIRST leader of the Soviet Union who was
answer
born into communism after the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution
question
Which policy of a communist leader in earlier Soviet history is "perestroika" most similar to?
answer
NEP
question
All of the following are aspects of Gorbachev's plan to restructure the economy, EXCEPT
answer
barring other nations from investing Soviet business enterprises
question
Perestroika failed to improve the Soviet economy for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT
answer
the lack of interest
question
The Soviet economy in the late 1980s and early 1990s was characterized by all of the following problems, EXCEPT
answer
increased central government direction of the economy
question
The FIRST nation in Eastern Europe to hold free, democratic elections in over 50 years was
answer
Poland
question
Gorbachev restructured the government of the Soviet Union between 1988 and 1990 by
answer
replacing the Supreme Soviet with the Congress of People's Deputies
question
Before the attempted coup in 1991, Gorbachev responded to the demands of the republics within the Soviet Union for greater independence by
answer
negotiating a Union Treaty for a looser confederation of the republics
question
The FIRST of the former republics of the Soviet Union to be recognized as completely independent
answer
were the Baltic state of
question
The people of Russia looked to Boris Yeltsin for leadership instead of Mikhail Gorbachev in late 1991 bc
answer
Yeltsin had been elected by the people as president of Russia
question
Communist gov't's surrendered one-party control in 1989 and called for free elections in all of the nations EXCEPT
answer
Yugoslavia
question
The most violent political change in Eastern Europe took place in 1989 with the revolutionary overthrow and execution of Nicolae Ceausescu
answer
Romania
question
The FIRST step toward the reunification of Germany took place in November 1989 when
answer
the Berlin Wall was opened and free entry to West Berlin was allowed
question
Under what conditions was Germany reunified?
answer
East Germany was absorbed into Federal Republic of Germany
question
The Warsaw Pact, the military alliance of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe,
answer
was dissolved in 1991
question
The three Slavic republic that took the final step that broke up the Soviet Union by creation the Commonwealth of Independent States in December 1991 were
answer
Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus
question
Which of the three nations of the former Soviet Union have NOT joined the CIS?
answer
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
question
Slovenia was able to declare its secession from Yugoslavia and its independence in 1991 EXCEPT
answer
the population of Slovenia is greater than that of the remaining republics
question
Second nation to develop an atomic bomb was
answer
the Soviet Union
question
The U.S. submarine was the first to
answer
travel under the ice cap at the North Pole
question
ICBMs
answer
long-range nuclear weapons-carrying missiles
question
SLBMs are launched from
answer
submarines
question
SALT I
answer
an agreement to limits on nuclear missiles
question
START II is a treaty that
answer
reduces the number of nuclear-armed missiles held by the U.S. and Russia
question
Sputnik
answer
man-made satellite placed into orbit
question
Cloned animals are
answer
exact genetic duplicates of a cell-donor animal
question
MIRVs
answer
missile warheads containing many nuclear bombs
question
ABMs are designed to
answer
destroy ICBMs that are approaching
question
The greatest threat to wildlife is
answer
destruction of habitat
question
A nuclear arms race began in
answer
1949
question
"space race"
answer
1957
question
"oil crisis"
answer
1973
question
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty sought to
answer
prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to nations that did not already have them
question
In what year was the Truman Doctrine announced?
answer
1947
question
The commemoration of the Berlin Airlift in 1998 marked which anniversary of the historic event?
answer
50th
question
For how many years did the Berlin Wall remain standing?
answer
28 years
question
How many years did the Cold War last?
answer
45 years
question
The nation that suffered the GREATEST losses in lives and property damage during WWII was
answer
the U.S.S.R.
question
Holocaust
answer
planned extermination of Jews in Nazi death camps
question
After WWII, Germany was divided into 4 occupation zones with a zone each for Great Britain, Soviet Union, U.S., and
answer
France
question
Peace treaties were signed in 1947 with all of the following Axis nations, EXCEPT
answer
Austria
question
"iron curtain"
answer
barriers to prevent travel and communication between Eastern and Western Europe
question
Under its foreign policy of containment, the U.S. promised to
answer
prevent further expansion of Soviet domination of other nations
question
All of the following nations received Marshall Plan aid from the U.S., EXCEPT
answer
Poland
question
President Tito of Yugoslavia was able to resist pressures from the Soviet Union in 1948 to become a Soviet Satellite state because
answer
there were no Soviet troops in Yugoslavia
question
The only non-communist nation in the Balkans in 1948 was
answer
Greece
question
The Charter of the United Nations was adopted
answer
in the year WWII ended
question
The Security Council of the United Nations CURRENTLY has how many members?
answer
15
question
Which of the major organs of the United Nations has had its workload and jurisdiction considerably decreased since the United Nations began?
answer
Trusteeship Council
question
The Secretariat of the United Nations is MOST similar to what part of a national government?
answer
executive branch
question
Which of the following members of NATO was NOT a founding member in 1949?
answer
West Germany
question
The Warsaw Pact is the Eastern European counterpart of
answer
NATO
question
The Berlin Airlift was conducted in 1948 and 1949 in response to
answer
Soviet action barring road and rail traffic between Berlin and the West
question
The Soviet and East German blockade of Berlin lasted for
answer
almost a year
question
The capital city of West Germany when it became an independent nation was
answer
Bonn
question
When South Korea was invaded by North Korea, direct military assistance to resist aggression came from
answer
the United Nations which called for members to send troops
question
The estimated number of Jews killed in Europe during the Holocaust is
answer
6 million
question
The concept of war crimes in international law
answer
became established at the end of WWII
question
All of the following Nazi leaders committed suicide, EXCEPT
answer
Rudolf Hess
question
The Declaration on Liberated Europe submitted by the U.S. at the Yalta Conference called for
answer
coalition interim governments in liberated nations and free elections
question
In 1947, Turkey received U.S. military and economic aid under the
answer
Truman Doctrine
question
The only Axis nation to gain territory under the peace treaties ending WWII was
answer
Bulgaria
question
In 1946, the United Nations and the Western Allies forced the Soviet Union the withdraw from
answer
Iran
question
The Cominform was established by the Soviet Union to
answer
aid communist parties in West European nations
question
The Soviet Union applied pressures on Turkey to
answer
share control of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits
question
The nations of Eastern Europe did NOT apply for Marshall Plan aid because
answer
the Soviet Union
question
All of the following nations were original members of NATO, EXCEPT
answer
Ireland
question
The Berlin Airlift demonstrated that
answer
the U.S. was committed to the defense of Berlin against the U.S.S.R.
question
The Soviets did not shoot down U.S. cargo planes flying across East Germany during the Berlin Airlift because the Soviet
answer
policy-makers were unwilling to take the risk of a military response from the U.S.
question
The FIRST chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany when it was established in 1949 was
answer
Konrad Adenauer
question
In the years following the death of Stalin, relations between the Soviet Union and the Western powers
answer
improved for a while, but then became more strained
question
The Korean War ended after three years of fighting in
answer
an armistice
question
North Korea was assisted in its war with South Korea by the armed forces of
answer
Communist china
question
The Soviet Union, Great Britain, the U.S., and France signed a peace treaty in 1955 with
answer
Austria
question
"spirit of Geneva"
answer
friendly relations at a summit meeting of U.S.S.R. and Western leaders
question
The president of the United States who attended summit meetings in 1955 and 1960 and who hosted Khrushchev during a visit to the United States was
answer
Dwight Eisenhower
question
The Berlin Wall was built by the East Germans and the Soviet Union to
answer
stop the flood refugees leaving East Germany for the West via West Berlin
question
Which East European government, following anti-Soviet demonstrations in 1956, chose a leader opposed by the U.S.S.R. .......
answer
Poland
question
Soviet tanks and troops were sent to crush a democratic, anti-communist revolution in 1956 in
answer
Hungary
question
During the Soviet suppression of the revolution in Hungary in 1956, the United Nations
answer
condemned the U.S.S.R. and called for Soviet withdrawal
question
The communist nation in Eastern Europe that broke with the Soviet Union and became politically and philosophically allied with Communist China was
answer
Albania
question
How many voted are needed to pass resolutions on issues of importance in the Security Council of the United Nations?
answer
9 votes, including those of the permanent members
question
Why are three of the five permanent members of the Security Council from Europe?
answer
They were among the major allies that defeated Germany and Japan in WWII
question
The United Nations has been MOST successful in
answer
ending fighting between small nations
question
A United Nations agency that specializes in developing programs to improve nutrition and the production of farms, forests, and fisheries is the
answer
FAO
question
One of the MAJOR successes of the ECOSOC of the United Nations has been to
answer
eradicate smallpox through vaccinations in less-developed nations
question
The United Nations has been involved in a number of Arab-Israeli conflicts in the Middle East by
answer
sending peacekeeping forces to supervise cease-fire agreements
question
The justices of the International Court of Justice are
answer
elected by the General Assembly and Security Council of the U.N.
question
Under international law, the open oceans are
answer
free to be used by any nation's merchant or naval vessels
question
Describe proxy wars
answer
Conflicts in which the rival superpowers financed and armed competing factions or parties
question
The "Brazilian Solution" refers to
answer
a combination of dictatorship, violent repression, and government promotion of industrialization
question
Describe the socialist reforms that Salvador Allende sought to implement?
answer
redistribute wealth from the elite and middle classes to the poor
question
Describe the "Dirty War"
answer
The Argentinian military fought for 7 years against terrorism
question
Which United States president worked to re-establish Panamanian sovereignty in the Canal Zone?
answer
Jimmy Carter
question
The "Contras" were
answer
Anti- Sanolinists Nicaraguans financed by both legal and illegal funds provided by the Reagan administration
question
A poor policy decision by the Argentinean military junta that precipitated its collapse was the
answer
seizure of the Falkland islands and calling them the " Malvinas" from Great Britain
question
In 1982, _____________ could not make its debt payments, which triggered a world financial crisis.
answer
Mexico
question
Describe the life of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?
answer
monarch of Iran, that opposed Western cultures and called U.S a " Great Satan" opposed to Islam
question
Describe the Iran-Contra deal?
answer
The answer on the test is D
question
Which country was engaged in an "unwinnable war" in 1978 with Afghanistan?
answer
Soviet Union
question
Describe the "Asian Tigers?"
answer
Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore that created rapid economic growth in their nations
question
All of the Newly Industrialized Economies (NIEs) share the characteristic of having
answer
disciplined and hardworking labor forces, and all heavily invested in education
question
Explain the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, China
answer
began to permit foreign investment and land wasn't privatized and the state became less lenient on the economy.
question
How did the Chinese government respond to the protests that culminated in Tiananmen Square?
answer
Tanks pushed into the square and killed hundreds, perhaps thousands
question
Describe the conditions of the Communist states by the 1980s and 1990s?
answer
deep divisions had appeared among communist states
question
Describe the policies of perestroika and glasnost. Who made them and why?
answer
Mikhail Gorbachev made them to address long- standing economic problems and popular discomfort
question
Describe "Solidarity"s
answer
a labor union that enrolled 9 million members and protest against the Soviet Union.
question
The playwright who was elected president of Czechoslovakia in 1990 was
answer
Vaclav Havel
question
East Germany was united with West Germany in what year
answer
1990
question
What powerful force ultimately caused the USSR to dissolve?
answer
a coup against Gorbachev and communism in Russia was botched
question
The result of the hard line Communist coup against Gorbachev was that
answer
disgust with communism boiled over
question
The Soviet Union was dissolved in what year
answer
1991
question
The cause of the Persian Gulf War was
answer
Saddam Hussein wishing to invade Kuwait
question
In 1798, Thomas Malthus argued that
answer
unchecked population growth would outstrip food supply
question
Societies that have made the "demographic transition" have
answer
Lowered fertility rates and reduced mortality
question
Developing nations that sponsored pro-nationalist policies often believed the
answer
larger populations increased national powers
question
Where do most people infected with the HIV virus live?
answer
less- developed regions
question
What explains the low birthrates of older industrial nations?
answer
higher levels of female education and employment, material value of consumer culture, access to contraception and abortion
question
Which countries has a declining life expectancy?
answer
In eastern Europe, the former soviet bloc
question
What two nations account for approximately one third of the world's population?
answer
India and China
question
Older industrial countries such as Sweden suffer from a population burden of
answer
an aging population and declining labor pool that makes it less competitive
question
Because Japan has the oldest population of any industrial nation, it has
answer
invested heavily in technological solutions to the problem of its aging population
question
Increases in global immigration are due in large part to
answer
intractable poverty and growing population
question
Despite the unprecedented global economic growth since 1945, the majority of the world's population
answer
remains in poverty
question
The growing gap between rich and poor nations is exemplified by the fact that one billion people in the world
answer
lived on less than $500 a year in 2001
question
In the United States greater wealth inequality was in part to
answer
tax reforms of Ronald Reagen and George W. Bush and 1990s stock market born
question
Internal migration in developing nations resulted in
answer
Shantytowns round major cities
question
Although immigrants from developing nations bring many benefits to a new country, they
answer
ethnic and racial tensions in host nation
question
Anti-immigrant feelings in industrialized nations are mostly due to
answer
The answer on the test is B
question
How has technological innovation after World War II changed our world?
answer
it increased productivity, disseminated human creativity, and altered the way people live/work/ play
question
As Western economies recovered from World War II, most
answer
consumers wanted producers that reduced their workloads or provided entertainment
question
The technology that best symbolizes the innovations of the last fifty years is
answer
the computer
question
The primary agent of technological change is the
answer
The answer on the test is C
question
Which country has arguably the worst environmental record?
answer
Soviet Union
question
Describe some efforts to preserve the environment
answer
- The clean air act - The clean water act - The endangered Species Act
question
Explain the phrase "iron curtain"
answer
A watchword for the Cold War coined by Winston Churchill.
question
Explain what the Cold War was
answer
The state of political tension and military rivalry between the U.S and its allies and the Soviet Union and its satellites.
question
Explain what the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was
answer
Military alliances created in 1949 by the U.S and its allies against the Soviet Union.
question
Why was the World Bank created
answer
To provide funds for reconstructing Europe and helping needy countries after the war.
question
Explain the Marshall Plan
answer
It provided 12.5 billion in aid to friendly European nations to support reconstruction.
question
The success of the European Economic Community, or Common Market, is evident through
answer
Their overtaking the U.S in industrial production.
question
In the Soviet Union there was a post war economic recovery followed by
answer
A less responsive and efficient economy and low production of consumer goods.
question
In order to resist Soviet pressure, the Truman Doctrine offered military aid to
answer
Turkey and Greece
question
The Soviet counterpart to NATO was called the
answer
Warsaw Pact
question
Explain the causes of the Korean War
answer
Communist North Korea invaded non-communist South Korea, the South was supported by the UN.
question
The Korean War was limited to the Korean peninsula because
answer
The U.S feared that going into China might prompt the Soviet Union to retaliate.
question
Restrictions on U.S. military operations during the Vietnam War were designed to
answer
To prevent a wider war with Chinese involvement and possible nuclear confrontation.
question
When the United States discovered the Soviet Union had deployed nuclear missiles in Cuba in 1962, it sparked
answer
Fear and preparation of invasion of Cuba.
question
Explain the Helsinki Accords
answer
Final act of the CSCE that affirmed that no boundaries should be changed by military force.
question
What event was the catalyst for the space race
answer
The Soviet Union placed a small Sputnik Satellite into orbit around Earth
question
Nations became independent at the end of World War II primarily because of
answer
Anti-imperialist and independence movement caused WWII victors losing nearly all imperial possessions
question
Which ways were India and Pakistan different?
answer
Pakistan was religious defined and fell under dictatorship, while Secular India was a republic. India was larger and had more resources
question
In 1947 India and Pakistan went to war over the
answer
Kashmir
question
The Dutch East Indies are known by what other name
answer
Indonesia
question
After World War II, France considered Algeria to be
answer
An actual part of France
question
Describe the causes and effects of the French-Algerian War?
answer
Many angry colonist left to France undermining the Algerian economy, Algeria kept economic ties to France.
question
The first British colony in West Africa to gain independence was
answer
Egypt and Libya
question
Kenya faced a difficult task in winning independence mostly because of
answer
British opposition including banning all protests and imprisoning leaders
question
Independence in French West Africa came slowly because of
answer
The promises of Charles de Gaulle and African Patriotism
question
South African governments used policies of racial segregation called
answer
Apartheid
question
Which leader of the African National Congress organized guerrilla resistance in 1960?
answer
Nelson Mandela
question
The United States overthrew the Guatemalan government in 1954 because
answer
Fears/reports that Jacobo Arbenz was becoming friendly to communism
question
In 1956, 25 percent of Cuban national income was derived from
answer
Sugar
question
The Cuban government was overthrown by Fidel Castro mostly because
answer
Popular discontent with Batista
question
The Bay of Pigs invasion
answer
Was an effort to overthrow Castro, but JFK sent less air support then what was planned
question
The goal of Castro and his revolution was to
answer
Break the economic and political power of the U.S in Cuba
question
Third World nations were
answer
Nations that were neutral in the East/West struggle
question
In 1956, Israel, Great Britain, and France joined together to
answer
Invade Egypt, overthrew Nasir to regain the Suez Canal and protect Israel
question
The Cold War isolated and excluded Japan from world political issues, helping Japan to
answer
Rebuild their industries and engage in world commerce
question
Mao Zedong's 1958 Great Leap Forward was a plan designed to
answer
Vault China into the ranks of world industrial power by maximizing labor in small scale industry and collect civilization of agriculture
question
The 1966 Chinese Cultural Revolution was initially intended to
answer
Kindle revolutionary fervor in a new generation to ward off the stagnation and bureaucratization of the USSR
question
Since World War II, the most important political issue in Arab countries has been the
answer
Struggle with Israel
question
Explain the created of Israel and its struggles with its Arab neighbors?
answer
The UN gave Jewish people a piece of land in Palestine to create Israel that Palestinians opposed
question
Explain the Six Day War of 1967?
answer
Israel responded to threatening Egyptian military moves and won in 6 days
question
The superpowers didn't view the struggle between Israel and the Arab States as a vital concern until
answer
Oil became a political issue
question
The Egyptian-Israeli war in 1973 led directly to the
answer
Embargo of oil shipping the U.S
question
An example of new awareness for environmental issues in the United States was the
answer
-Creation of Earth day -Environmental Protection Agency -Hydroelectric Dams -Nuclear Power Plant
question
The hijackers on September 11, 2001
answer
targeted buildings that symbolized American government, military, and trade
question
The motives for the September 11, 2001 attacks include
answer
anger at American influence in the Middle East
question
What is globalization
answer
the growing global economic, cultural, and political integration and interaction
question
The spread of democracy encourages
answer
political moderation
question
Which region(s) have made significant gains in extending democracy to people
answer
Eastern Europe and Latin America
question
After the death of Deng Xiaoping
answer
China has allowed greater freedom but not democracy
question
Democracy in Africa had "mixed results;" however, in 1994 South Africa
answer
elected Nelson Mandela and democracy was used to resolve conflicts
question
In the post Cold War era, international peacekeeping efforts have become complicated due to
answer
the autonomy of nation states.
question
The war in Bosnia in 1992 began when
answer
fighting erupted between Muslims, Catholics, and Orthodox groups in Yugoslavia
question
Efforts to eliminate people of a different ethnic group is called
answer
ethnic cleansing
question
What country eventually intervened to help the Bosnian Muslims
answer
United States
question
In 1994, the leaders of Rwanda
answer
committed genocide by inciting Hutu people to massacre the Tutsi
question
Why were major powers reluctant to intervene in conflicts
answer
They were afraid to become involved in long costly conflicts
question
The movement to restrict nuclear proliferation made progress in the 1960's and 1970s, but
answer
India and Pakistan tested nuclear weapons in 1998, North Korea continued weapons development secretly, China resumed nuclear weapons testing in 1992, and President Bush pushed for new nuclear weapon development
question
How are chemical and biological weapons different from nuclear weapons
answer
They are easily produced and hidden
question
What is the goal of terrorism
answer
to provoke harsh reprisals that would gain public sympathy
question
What did Usama bin Laden do after being expelled from Saudi Arabia
answer
he moved operations to Sudan and then Afghanistan
question
Anti-American attacks prior to September 11, 2001 included bombing the
answer
United States Embassy in Kenya, United States Embassy in Tanzania, and U.S.S. Cole in port in Yemen
question
An example of the United States government's aggressive policy toward terrorism was
answer
the overthrow of the Taliban in Afghanistan
question
In the 1990's, free trade appeared to be the best way achieve economic growth
answer
but also subjected markets to "busts" as well as "booms"
question
As investors increasingly put money in developing countries, the greatest beneficiary was
answer
China
question
In 2002, the European Union promoted economic growth and free trade by
answer
adopting a common currency, the Euro
question
The North American Free Trade Agreement
answer
eliminated tariffs among the United States, Canada, and Mexico
question
The World Trade Organization was founded to
answer
reduce trade barriers and enforce international trade agreements
question
Why does the World Trade Organization attract critics and protests
answer
It is dominated by the world's seven richest nations and Russia
question
At the turn of the millennium, some Christians thought the end of the world was coming; this is called
answer
millenarianism
question
Some Jews in Israel believe that God gave the Jews
answer
all the land included in the ancient Jewish kingdom
question
Muslim frustration stems from the failure of
answer
modernization to improve their status and income
question
Why do many Muslims hold an unfavorable opinion of the United States
answer
The United States supports Israel as well as undemocratic governments in the Muslim world
question
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights reflected
answer
agreement against racism and imperialism
question
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights has most often been criticized because
answer
it ignores the values of non-Western cultures and religions
question
"NGOs" is an acronym for
answer
non-governmental organizations
question
Seventy percent of the people infected with AIDS live in
answer
Sub-Saharan Africa
question
Why did AIDS draw global attention from human rights advocates
answer
High mortality rates are association with poverty and expensive treatment
question
Warming caused by the earth's atmospheric gases is called the
answer
greenhouse effect
question
Which of the following is not one of the issues that were the focus of the International Women's Rights Conferences in Kenya and China
answer
equal access to jobs and education
question
At the International Women's Rights Conferences, non-Western women
answer
complained that Western women had narrow concerns and were condescending
question
A universally acceptable women's rights agenda at the International Women's Right's Conferences
answer
proved elusive
question
Cultural imperialism has spread Western tastes and styles around the globe by using
answer
global marketing
question
The most important factor in making Western culture available to the rest of the world was
answer
improved technology
question
Television did not spread to most non-Western cultures until the
answer
1980s
question
The Internet is
answer
a linkage of academic, governmental, and business computer networks
question
The post World War II decades were dominated by American cultural imperialism; however
answer
popular culture and products have become increasingly international
question
The rising importance of English as a global second language has been due to the
answer
use of English in former British colonies and importance of the United States in world affairs and business
question
There was a small European population in Africa; however,
answer
they made a deep social and economic impact
question
What impact did Europeans have on African health care
answer
Although they claimed to improve it, colonialism usually worsened health care
question
Christian religions proved attractive in some parts of Africa because
answer
they established mission schools
question
In 1909, the African National Congress was founded by
answer
Western-educated lawyers and journalists
question
Before World War II, African nationalist movements were
answer
small and had little influence
question
World War II was most important for African independence movements because
answer
so many Africans served in Allied armies and learned new liberal ideas
question
Although much of India is fertile land, its agriculture suffered mostly because of
answer
drought
question
Among the many languages of India, the educated middle class communicated in
answer
English
question
The Indian Civil Service was considered one of the most ____________ bureaucracies of all time
answer
honest
question
In 1885, the Indian National Congress was founded by
answer
a small group of English-speaking Hindu professionals
question
Indian Muslims formed a group to protest Hindu dominance of India called the
answer
All-India Muslim League
question
When Indians defied the British and developed a steel industry, it
answer
inspired national pride and desire for self-rule
question
Indian nationalists during World War I supported Britain enthusiastically and
answer
expected that India would be granted independence after the war
question
Mohandas Gandhi was known to his followers as Mahatma, or
answer
"the great soul"
question
Gandhi's "unusual" political ideas included
answer
non-violence
question
Despite Gandhi's wealthy background, he
answer
attracted poor followers
question
Gandhi protested British violence and policies by
answer
fasting
question
During the 1920s, the British in India
answer
slowly gave Indians control over "national areas" such as education and the economy
question
When Indians revolted against colonial authorities at the beginning of World War II, the British government
answer
offered India its independence after the war
question
As India prepared for independence, the most serious problem was the
answer
struggle between Hindus and Muslims
question
The 1947 independence of Pakistan and India was
answer
marred by violence between Muslims and Hindus
question
In 1910, the most serious problem facing Mexico was
answer
the growing gap between rich and poor
question
One percent of the Mexican population owned
answer
85 percent of the land
question
The motto of General Porfirio Diaz during his thirty-four years if rule was
answer
"Liberty, order, progress"
question
The Mexican Revolution can be described as
answer
the work of many ambitious but limited leaders
question
What did Emiliano Zapata do with the land he seized
answer
returned it to the Indian villages
question
Which of the following is not one of the reasons that the Constitutionalists eventually won control in Mexico
answer
They had more soldiers than Zapata and Villa
question
The Mexican Revolution produced an "explosion" of creativity, for example, the
answer
paintings of Frida Kahlo
question
The National Revolutionary Party (PRN) in 1928 in Mexico
answer
created a forum for labor, peasants, and business
question
Argentina's government represented the interests of the oligarquia, which is
answer
a small group of wealthy land owners
question
Both Argentina and Brazil had
answer
a small but outspoken middle class
question
After World War I, radio communication in Latin America was controlled by
answer
a cartel of U.S., British, and French companies
question
The Depression of 1929
answer
caused Argentina and Brazil to veer toward authoritarian regimes
question
Varga's policy for industrialization of Brazil was not called
answer
mercantilism, "supply side" economics, decreasing returns to scale, or "demand side" economics
question
A consequence of industrialization of Brazil was
answer
ecological changes
question
In Argentina, Juan Perón was elected president in 1946 with the help of his
answer
wife, Eva Perón
question
Roots of Cold War
answer
-War time conferences -Different world views -Partition of Germany
question
Tehran Conference
answer
USSR was guaranteed to be the only power to liberate eastern Europe
question
Yalta Conference
answer
Germany would be divided into four zones controlled by U.S., France, Britain and USSR
question
Potsdam Conference
answer
Stalin wanted a "buffer zone" between Germany and USSR for protection against a future war
question
Soviet POV
answer
U.S. & Britain did not open a western front in Europe early enough in WWII; millions of Soviet soldiers died fighting the brunt of Nazi armies alone until mid-1944
question
US and Britain
answer
Froze Russia out of the atomic bomb project
question
Stalin
answer
seemed intent on creating in eastern Europe, Areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
question
US
answer
wanted democracy spread throughout the world with a strong international organization to maintain global peace
question
Partition of Germany
answer
USSR, U.S., Britain & France each occupied a part of Germany and theoretically would allow for German reunification once she was no longer a threat
question
reparations payments
answer
Soviet Union stripped East Germany of much of its resources as
question
U.S. and western Europeans
answer
believed the German economy was vital to the recovery of Europe
question
West Germany
answer
became an independent country when US, France and Britain gave back each of their zones
question
Marshall Plan
answer
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.(1948) massive transfer of aid money to help rebuild postwar Western Europe; was intended to bolster capitalist and democratic governments and prevent domestic communist groups from riding poverty and misery to power; the plan was first announced by Secretary of State George Marshall at Harvard's commencement in June 1947(1948) massive transfer of aid money to help rebuild postwar Western Europe; was intended to bolster capitalist and democratic governments and prevent domestic communist groups from riding poverty and misery to power; the plan was first announced by Secretary of State George Marshall at Harvard's commencement in June 1947U.S. sent a massive financial aid package of $13 billion to help war-torn Europe recover from the war
question
Berlin Crisis
answer
Soviets attempted to remove the Allies from Berlin by cutting off access to the city
question
Berlin during crisis
answer
partitioned into four sections, just as the whole of Germany had been partitioned after the war
question
NATO
answer
..., North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countriesFounded in response to the Berlin Crisis, ..., North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
question
Warsaw Pact
answer
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATOFormed by Soviet Union in response to West Germany joining NATO
question
Mao Zedong
answer
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.Communists in China led by _____ won the Chinese revolution
question
Peoples Republic of China
answer
commonly known as China, is the largest country in East Asia Mao Zedong beat Jiang Jiesh and gained control of the country he called it the Peoples Republic of China.a socialist republic ruled by the Communist Party of China under a single-party systemRed China also called _____ established after communist rev.
question
Communist victory in Chinese revolution
answer
Terrible blow to the U.S. policy of containment; the world's most populous country was now communist
question
north was communist, south was not
answer
After WWII, Korea divided
question
United Nations
answer
sent forces to push back communists during the Korean War
question
Result of Korean War
answer
cease-fire (still in existence today) reached in 1953 and the border was restored at the 38th parallel
question
Communist parties of eastern Europe
answer
established one-party states by 1948, with help of the Red Army and the KGB (Soviet secret police)
question
Berlin Wall
answer
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the WestA fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.East Germany built the ________around West Berlin rather than enforce the ultimatum to U.S. which effectively ended future crises over Berlin
question
Fidel Castro
answer
Cuba became a communist country in 1959 under the leadership of ______ and a staunch ally of the USSR
question
Cold War
answer
A struggle over political differences between nations carried on by methods short of a full-out war. The Cold War is the global power stubble between the US and the Soviet Union that lasted from 1945-1991. It wasn't only a conflict between political ideologies, but it was also a conflict based on economic and social aspects of each side's ideologies.
question
Negative Consequences of the Cold War
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The Cold War may have remained "cold," but it did put the world in danger during this time. The US and the Soviet Union tried to out power each other and show who's superior, which eventually lead to a mass build-up of nuclear weapons that could and almost have been used in this time. From both sides of the conflict, massive waves of propaganda were used by both sides to portray the other as the enemy. To add, citizens living in the Soviet Union and even in the United States lived in fear at this time. Not only from the nuclear threat, but it's also because the governments in these superpowers have been investigating all walks of life of its own citizens to check their loyalty to their country. If a person was suspected of siding with the "enemy," then there would be harsh punishments like being sent to Siberia (in the Soviet Union) or get blacklisted and sent to prison (in the USA). To add, in this 46 year stand-off, there had been smaller but major wars that occurred like the Korean War and Vietnam War that costed hundreds of thousands of lives from both soldiers to unarmed citizens. In addition, the Cold War is one of the minor effects of the recent conflicts in Ukraine and the current tensions between the relations of US and Russia.
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Positive Consequences of the Cold War
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Despite this boiling conflict, some positives were brought by the Cold War. During the Cold War, the West developed NATO to combat and contain Soviet aggression and expansion. Now, this organization is still very active and helps struggling countries fight against terrorism. Also, we've already established that the Cold War was mainly the superpowers' attempt to outsmart and out power each other. So, because of this, the Space Race occurred and resulted in NASA, mankind stepping on the moon, and space exploration. Lastly, it may sound surprising, but the build-up of nuclear weapons may have actually kept the Cold War cold since the superpowers' know that a nuclear war would have no winner.
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Communism
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A political ideology in which a government seeks equal distribution of wealth and ends all forms of private property..... in theory. However, in the world and history, there hasn't been a fully successful ....... country. This is because in a ......... society, private establishments are all maintained by the government, and this equals to money, which in a not perfect world, equals to greed. This explains why the leaders of ....... states are all wealthy and powerful, but the people had no sufficient money to even feed themselves. To add, if wealth is distributed equally, then why would would a person do their best effort if they don't get any credit. These mistakes may make us against ........, but ...... has its own benefits and capitalism, the opposite, has its own mistakes and benefits as well. Countries that had these ideals = Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, Cuba
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Democracy
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A form of government in which the supreme power is vested or held by the people and exercised by them directly, like in a direct ...., or indirectly, like in a indirect or parliamentary ..... If its directly, the people are the majority that rules the government that the people elected. There are 3 branches, the judicial, legislative, and executive branch all working in unison to be "of the people, by the people, and for the people."
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Containment
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A policy or process of preventing the expansion of a hostile pose: the US foreign policy followed during the Cold War that sought to prevent the expansion of Soviet communism. This is the reason why NATO is established and why the US fought in wars in Korea and Vietnam because they believed in the Domino Theory that if one nation (mostly in Southeast Asia) fell to communism, then the rest of Asia will follow as well.
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Domino Theory
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The theory US officials believed that if one nation, regarding Southeast Asia, fell to communism, then the rest of Asia will follow. This is one of the main reasons why the US fought in Vietnam and Korea as part of their containment policy. To add, the US meddled with countries like the Philippines to prevent any communism from happening, but this resulted in both positive and negative (dictator ruling the country) consequences for that country.
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Warsaw Pact
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A Soviet military alliance set up in 1955 in response to NATO. This alliance makes up the communist nations of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The Warsaw Pact officially marked the Iron Curtain. When the Cold War ended in 1991, most of the Warsaw Pact countries, except Russia, joined NATO.
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North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
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A military alliance formed in 1949 by the US and 11 other countries that are mainly in Western Europe to combat the growing expansion of Soviet communism and domination. The ..... countries agreed to help defend each other in case of an attack. Currently, this organization is the longest-running, largest, military alliance during peacetime. Right now, this organization is combatting the threat of terrorism worldwide after the attacks in 9/11.
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United Nations
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An international organization located in New York City that was charted in 1945 to resolve conflicts between nations through diplomacy (not necessarily- .. forces fought in the Korean War). Currently, there are 193 nations in this organization. This organization doesn't only help countries resolve their differences but helps developing countries by having organizations link to this like the World Health Organization. Triva- This organization was created after WW2 as an improved version of the League of Nations, which was created after WW1 to prevent another war from happening. This didn't happen due to the Leagues drawbacks.
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Red Scare
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A wave of anti-communist fear that swept the US after WW1 and again after WW2 in the 1950s. During the 1950s, America was so hysterical of communism that they started to blacklist all citizens from all walks of life. If you showed just a little disloyalty to the US back then, you could be blacklisted. This means your opportunities will be limited- i.e.-companies will not hire you because you're blacklisted.
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House of Un-American Activities (HUAC)
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An organization created in the 1930s to combat the Red Scare. It almost fell into extinction during WW2, but at the end, it was revived by Congress, as America undergoes the Second Red Scare. During this time, this organization was lead by J.Parnell Thomas who, like McCarthy, became extreme against communism that he and his organization began to accuse innocent people. The HUAC and its chairman, Thomas, became involve in scandals like the Hollywood 10 and Chambers/Hiss Trial. *Part of the Red Scare*
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McCarthyism
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A method of making vicious accusations without offering proof. This method was named after the Republican Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy. This senator was a person who accused people of being Communist if they showed a little disloyalty to the US government. No one dared speak against him because of his personality. *Part of the Red Scare*
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Berlin Wall
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Constructed in 1961 by the communists to prevent the people from East Germany and East Berlin, the capital of East Germany, to migrate to West Berlin. West Berlin is part of East Berlin that is democratic and ruled by the Western Allies in WW2. This wall was heavily guarded and many attempts were made to escape to the West. Eventually, the wall collapsed both politically and physically in 1989. This wall is a strong symbol of communistic brutality and the Iron Curtain.
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Iron Curtain
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A statement claimed by Winston Churchill to the actions the Soviets did to isolate their land and the Warsaw Pact countries. This statement is basically a metaphor of what the Soviets are doing to isolate themselves to the West-i.e. the Warsaw Pact, and their brutality for the people living inside this ........ Basically the ...... was an unclear economic and political border between the Warsaw Pact and most of the NATO countries.
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38th Parallel
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A line of latitude that separates communist North Korea from South Korea after WW2. Before Japan surrendered, Korea has been its colony since 1910. After Japan surrendered, Korea was removed from Japanese control and were split between Soviet control, who established a puppet government (communist) under Kim-Il-Sung (grandfather of the Kim-Jung-Un, the current dictator of NK), and American control, who established an independent, democratic, and capitalist nation. That separation was called the .... After the Korean War, the borders almost remained near this line. The border of SK and NK has a gap called the Demilitarized Zone or DMZ, and this area is one of the most heavily defended border in the world.
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Harry Truman
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On April 12th, 1945 immediately after Franklin Roosevelt's death, _______ ______ became president of the United States
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atomic bomb
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With Roosevelt not allowing Truman in his meetings Truman was unaware of the plan to develop the ________ ________
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United Nations, Nato
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although only having a high school diploma, his was able to lead the United States into the _____ _____ and _______ to promote peace ✌ throughout the world mets in New York
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a) general assembly- includes the delegates from all member nations b) the security council- elected by the general assembly that has power to veto c) the secretariat- which is the center of the administration
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The United Nations is made up of three agencies:
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veto
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The United Nations has not been very successful since any member of the security council can _______ anything that has been pass
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tension and intense competition
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Russia and the United States entered into a cold war, a period of ________ and _____ ____ which occasionally acted up into conflict
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puppet governments
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Between 1945 and 1948 Russia had set up _________ ____ in Eastern Europe
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iron curtain
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The Russians had set up an "_______ _______ " a separation of communists countries and free democratic countries
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Nato, US and Western European, communist
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______ was formed by Canada, The United States and ten ________ ______ nations who agreed to come to the aid if any were attacked by a ________ nation
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Warsaw pact, communist
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The ______ ______ formed in 1955 made up of ______ countries agreed to defend each other
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communist east Berlin, democratic West Berlin
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after WW2 Berlin was divided into ______ _____ _____ and ________ _____ ______
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General Chiang Kai-Shek and Mao-tse-tung
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In china civil war broke out between _____ _______ ____ and communist leader _______- ________ - _____
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Chiang Kai-Shek, mainland China
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The United States back _______ ____ _____ but the communist finally took control of _______ _____
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Taiwan, Democratic
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Chiang Kai-Shek finally settled in ______ and formed a __________ government
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Korea
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The greatest cold war conflict came in ________ in Asia
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communist North Korea and Non communist South Korea
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After WW2 Korea was divided between ______ ____ _____ and ______ ____ _____ ____ (at the 38 parallel)
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Douglas MacCarthur, United Nations Forces
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_____ _______, American hero of the Pacific War during WW2, was in command of the _____ _______ _______
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South Korea, China
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North Korea invaded ______ _____ successfully but where thrown back by MacCarthur until communist _____ entered the conflict
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Truman, stale mate
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Fearing war with China President _______ was content to settle for a ______ _____
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33 thousand
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_____ _____ American Troops were killed or injured and the boundary at the 38th parallel remained unchanged
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1959
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in ______ another conflict came into existence
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Fidel Castro
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______ ____ overthrew general Batista and set up a communist dictartorship in Cuba
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CIA and Cubans, Castro
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President Kennedy using the ________ and ________ who had fled from Cuba planned to attack and overthrow ________
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Bay of Pigs
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The ______ ____ _____ as it became known was a total disaster
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missiles with nuclear warheads
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In 1962 Russia placed _______ with ______ _____ in Cuba
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Cuban Missile Crisis
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Called the _______ ____ ____ Kennedy ordered the Russians to remove the missile
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blockade
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Kennedy also ordered a _________ not allowing anything in or out of Cuba
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Khrushchev
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_______ dictator of Russia removed all the missile from Cuba
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new deal, government
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Roosevelt's domestic program was called the _____ _____ , which was spending large sums of money from the ________ to give people jobs
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conservatives
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The ________ did not agree with this policy
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Republicans,Taft- Hartley
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______ later take control of congress and passed the ______-______ Act which was against unions
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Right to work laws
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Some States pass ____ ____ _____ ______ allowing workers to work without joining a union
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Red Scare
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After WW2 there was a period of time called ______ ______, the fear of communism in the United States
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American Government
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Many people blamed workers in the _______ ______ for allowing communism to spread
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American documents
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an Ex-American Congressman was accused of passing secret ______ ______ to Russia
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statute of limitations, perjury
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He could not be tried because the _____ ____ _____ has expired but was sent to prison for lying under oath which is _______
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Julius and Ethel Rosenburg
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Also in 1953 _______ and _____ ______ was executed for passing Atomic Secret Information to the Russians during WW2
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McCarran Internal Security act
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Fearful of other security problems, the United States passed the ______ _____ ______ _____which made it easier for the government to combat espionage
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William F. Buckley
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A staunch conservative _____ __. _____, wrote a best selling book when he graduated from Yale
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God And Men at Yale, libel, political, and philosophy
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the book, ____ ___ ___ ___ ___, was a critique of the universality's _______, _________, _________
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national review
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in 1955 Buckley founded the _____ _____, a magazine the promoted conservatives view points in America