Ch. 23

The biological specialty that deals with the grouping and naming of organisms is called taxonomy or _________.
classification
The biological specialty that deals with the reconstruction and study of phylogenies is called _________.
systematics
The behavior of parental care exhibited by dinosaurs is thought to be __________ to this behavior in crocodiles and birds because phylogeny shows that these three groups share a common ancestor.
homologous
Saber teeth found in different groups of extinct carnivorous mammals are considered ___________ structures, as the fossil record shows that saber teeth evolved independently among the groups.
homoplastic
Systematists often use DNA sequencing in ______________, the study of the order of evolutionary events within a group sharing derived characters.
cladistics
A ______________ group consists of the most recent common ancestor and all of its descendants.
monophyletic
A ______________ group consists of the most recent common ancestor and some of its descendants.
paraphyletic
A ______________ group does not contain the most recent common ancestor.
polyphetic
The principle of ______________ favors the hypothesis that requires the fewest assumptions.
parsimony
A derived character that is shared by all members of a clade is called a ______________ of that clade.
synapomorphy
Characteristics between the branch points of a cladogram that are shared by all organisms above the branch point and are not present in any below it are called
derived characters
Characteristics that have arisen in organisms as a result of common evolutionary descent are said to be ______________ characteristics.
ancestral
One day after a biology class four of your friends argue about the difference between phylogeny and systematics. Which friend is right?
Friend D says that the way she remembers is that systematics is the reconstruction and study of phylogenies.
The evolutionary sequence in the development of a complex character can be best analyzed through
synapomorphies
A phylogenetically-based taxonomy is important not only in creating a logical way to name organisms, but also in learning about ________ of organisms using information in related species. Check all that apply.
__X__ physiology __X__ behavior __X__ development __X__ morphology
Choose the true statement about the morphological data in the chart shown below. The “1” in the box means the trait is present and the “0” indicates that the trait is absent.
The lamprey is the only outgroup since it shares none of the derived characteristics.
The study and reconstruction of phylogenies is
systematics
Derived character states shared by clade members are called
synapomorphies
The following steps are used to construct a cladogram that best reflects the evolutionary relationships of a group of species. If you arranged these steps from first to last, which step would be last?
Apply the principle of parsimony.
Character states shared by the ancestor or outgroup of a clade are called
symplesiomorphies
Birds, snakes, lizards, turtles, and crocodiles are all thought to share a common ancestor and several homologous traits. Assuming that this is true, these groups of animals would best represent
monophyletic group
Assume that evidence suggests that the crocodiles are more closely related to the birds than the turtles and snakes. If so, then including the crocodiles but not the birds in the Class Reptilia, would make the Class Reptilia
paraphyletic group
A group is considered monophyletic if
all members of the group share a common ancestor that is included in the group.
A group is considered paraphyletic if
not all descendants of the common ancestor are included.
A group is considered polyphyletic if
the group does not contain the most recent common ancestor.
The phylogenetic species concept (PSC) declares that a group is a species if it
has evolved one or more of its own derived characters.
Parental care in dinosaurs, crocodiles, and birds is an example of
homology caused by common descent.
The evolution of saber teeth in a number of groups of extinct carnivorous mammals is an example of
homoplasy caused by convergence.
The evolution of conducting tubes (sieve tubes) in land plants and brown algae is an example of
homoplasy caused by convergence.