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Financial managers and others who base their decisions on complex quantitative analysis, under the assumption that using advanced mathematics and sophisticated computer technology can accurately predict how the market works and help them reap huge profits.
contingency view
An extension of the humanistic perspective in which the successful resolution of organizational problems is thought to depend on managers’ identification of key variations in the situation at hand.
political forces
The influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations
systems thinking
Seeing both the distinct elements of a system or situation and the complex and changing interaction among those elements.
humanistic perspective
A management perspective that emerged near the late nineteenth century and emphasizes understanding human behavior, needs, and attitudes in the workplace.
hawthorne studies
A series of experiments on worker productivity begun in 1924 at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company in Illinois; attributed employees’ increased output to managers’ better treatment of them during the study.
human relations movement
A movement in management thinking and practice that emphasizes satisfaction of employees’ basic needs as the key to increased worker productivity.
bureaucratic organizations
A subfield of the classical management perspective that emphasizes management on an impersonal, rational basis through such elements as clearly defined authority and responsibility, formal record-keeping, and separation of management and ownership.
administrative principles
A subfield of the classical management perspective that focuses on the total organization rather than the individual worker, delineating the management functions of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.
quantitative perspective
A management perspective that emerged after World War II and applies mathematics, statistical techniques, and other computer technology to facilitate management decision making, particularly for massive and complex problems.
The concept that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
Parts of a system that depend on one another for their functioning.
customer relations management
Systems that help companies keep in close touch with customers, collect and manage customer data, and collaborate with customers to provide the most valuable products and services.
supply chain management
Managing the sequence of suppliers and purchasers, covering all stages of processing from obtaining raw materials to distributing finished goods to final customers.
social forces
The aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people-their values, needs, and standards of behavior.
scientific management
A subfield of the classical management perspective that emphasizes scientifically determined changes in management practices as the solution to improving labor productivity.
total quality management
A concept that focuses on managing the total organization to deliver quality to customers. Four significant elements of TQM are employee involvement, focus on the customer, benchmarking, and continuous improvement.
economic forces
Forces that affect the availability, production, and distribution of a society’s resources among competing users.
behavioral sciences approach
A subfield of the humanistic management perspective that applies social science in an organizational context, drawing from economics, psychology, sociology, and other disciplines.
A set of interrelated parts that function as a whole to achieve a common purpose.
human resources perspective
A management perspective that suggests jobs should be designed to meet higher-level needs by allowing workers to use their full potential.
Contracting out selected functions or activities of an organization to other organizations that can do the work more cost efficiently.
classical perspective
A management perspective that emerged during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that emphasized a rational, scientific approach to the study of management and sought to make organizations efficient operating machines.

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