Ch. 19 Margin & Big Picture Questions

Flashcard maker : Sam Arent
In what ways did the Industrial Revolution shape the character of nineteenth century European imperialism?
•Need for raw materials found in other parts of the world
•Markets to sell goods
•Investment and profit opportunities would decrease class conflict
•Better technology and weapons
What contributed to changing European views of Asians and Africans in the nineteenth century?
•Secular arrogance (\”We’re better than you because…\”) religion=older approach, race, money, ideologies, government, education, health care, clothing
•Social Darwinism-the strong will survive = the new more modern approach
What accounts for the massive peasant rebellions of nineteenth century China?
•Increase in population, agriculture could not keep up which led to a huge peasant population -unemployment-famine
•Local officials were corrupt
•Peasants did not like Qing dynasty b/c they were Manchurian
•Bad times lead to follow the leader that makes promises to suit your needs.
How did Western pressures stimulate change in China during the nineteenth century?
•China was forced to import opium
•Had to cede Hong Kong to Britain and open ports
•Import tariffs were set at a low rate of 5%
•Extraterritoriality-foreigners live they way they want.
•Foreigners were given the right to buy land in China
•Doors opened to Christian missionaries
•Western powers could patrol interior waterways
•Lost control of Vietnam, Korea and Taiwan
•Western Powers + Japan + Russia had spheres of influence over China-they could set up military bases, take raw materials and build railroads
•Unequal treaties inhibited China’s ability to industrialize
What strategies did China adopt to confront various problems? In what ways did these strategies reflect China’s own history and culture as well as the new global order?
•\”Self-Strengthening\” program 1860s-1870s tired to borrow ideas from West
•New examination system
•Industrial factories were built and older industries were expanded
•Telegraph system
•Did not work because they were dependent on foreign machinery, materials and manpower. Plus the traditional local officials controlled industrial enterprises and used them to suit their own needs rather than the Nation’s.
What lay behind the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth century?
•Empire Shrank
•Empire weakened
•Janissaries became reactionary-weakened military
•Lack of technology
•Center for trade diminished
•Riots over the importation of cheap European goods
•Capitulations-(unequal laws) gave foreigners an advantage that exempted them from laws, taxes and duties
•Indebted and reliant on foreign lands and could not pay back loans
In what different ways did the Ottoman state respond to its various problems?
•\”Defensive Modernization\” new military and administrative structures
•Ambassadors sent to Europe to learn new methods of business
•Schools established to train future officials
•Tanzimat or reorganization-Modernize and Westernize
•Equality was being accepted
In what different ways did various groups define the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century?
•Young ottomans-loyal to the dynasty
•Pan-Islamic
•Young Turks-militant secular public life (Turkish national State)
How did Japan’s historical development differ from that of China and the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century?
•Internal peace between 1600-1850
•Agreed to unequal treaties
•Meiji Restoration-less destructive
•Less of an interest to the West
•Industrialized
•Did not become independent on foreign capital
In what ways was Japan changing during the Tokugawa era?
•Samurai evolved into salaried administrators
•Economic growth, urban development and commercialization
•Education promoted
•Social tension cause by merchant class and warrior class
•Corruption undermined the Tokugawa regime
•Some uprising by the poor
In what respects was Japan’s nineteenth century transformation revolutionary?
•Attacked the privileged
•Dismantled old Confucian based social order through abolition of class restrictions on occupation, residence, marriage and clothing, and dismantled limitations on travel and trade
•Modernized and Westernized quickly
•Used selective borrowing from the West
•State-guided industrialization
How did Japan’s relationship to the larger world change during its modernization process?
•Unequal treaties were rewritten
•Japan began to build an empire, taking Taiwan, Korea and parts of Manchuria (China)
•Won battles against Russia and China
•Became a competitor with the West
How did European Expansion in the Nineteenth century differ from that of the early modern era?
•Drew on immense new resources created by the Industrial revolution
•Nations were more powerful
•More military
•More technology
•More money
•New ideas sprung from rationalism, nationalism, feminism, socialism and individualism
What differences can you identify in how China, the Ottoman Empire, and Japan experienced Western imperialism and confronted it? How might you account for those differences?
•China and ottoman-More reliant on Western Finance, territory occupied
•All were forced to sign unequal treaties-Japan renegotiated
•All launched modernization programs, Japan’s was most radical and successful
\”The response of each society to European imperialism grew out of its larger historical development and its internal problems.\” What evidence might support this statement?
•Technology
•Internal problems China-Taiping Rebellion, Ottoman -lost territory, Japan-Corruption
What kinds of debates, controversies, and conflicts were generated by European intrusion within each of the societies examined in this chapter?
•Reaction to Western Powers was to modernize
•All societies dealt with issues of identity and tried to redefine themselves
•All societies dealt with conflicts between modernizers and conservatives.

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