History Chapters 18 Flashcards

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Which of the following describes the Gilded Age?
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b.An era marked by personal greed and a corrupt partnership between business and politics
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Which of the following development was a key factor in the rise of the Gilded Age?
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a.The growth of industrialism in the United States
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Which of the following big businesses came to dominate American life in the second half of the nineteenth century?
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c.Railroading
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Which of the following factors boosted nineteenth-century railroad construction in America significantly?
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a.Monetary aid and land grants from federal and state governments
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How was it possible that Jay Gould was described as both the world’s richest man and the most hated man in America when he died in 1892?
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b.He was a symbol of all the most troubling aspects of big business in America.
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Which relatively new building material both improved railroading in the late nineteenth century and depended on it ?
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c. Steel produced through the Bessemer process
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What was the purpose of vertical integration, which was pioneered by Andrew Carnegie in the late nineteenth century?
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d.To own all aspects of production of steel, from the raw materials to the transport of final products
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Carnegie Steel achieved the tremendous productivity that Andrew Carnegie insisted on?
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b. Forcing employees to work long hours, for low pay, in often dangerous conditions
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Which of the following occurred soon after Edwin Drake discovered oil in Pennsylvania in 1859?
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c.he faced stiff competition from a large number of small refineries
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What was the main purpose of crude oil in the United States before the advent of the automobile ?
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a.Lubrication and Lighting in the form of kerosene.
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John D. Rockefeller first organized Standard Oil as a trust to?
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d.Control the key elements of production and corner the market for oil
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Rockefeller ultimately reorganized Standard Oil as a holding company in the late nineteenth century to?
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C) legally combine competing companies under a central administration.
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Which of the following was true of Standard Oil in the 1890s?
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b.90% of oil business Employed nearly 100,000 people largest most feared and admired business organization employed vertical and horizontal integration
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In her History of the Standard Oil Company published in McClure’s Magazine, Ida M. Tarbell characterized John D. Rockefeller as ?
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D) the man whose business methods made him a symbol of heartless monopoly capitalism.
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How did Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone revolutionize both communications and business in America?
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c.Bell used a complicated organizational structure in his new company that allowed both local and cross-country communication
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Where had electricity been put to use in the United States at the beginning of the twentieth century?
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b.Mostly in urban areas
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The industries that grew up around the revolutionary inventions of Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Alva Edison demonstrated that?
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d.The age of the inventor was becoming the age of corporation
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The turn of the twentieth century saw individual entrepreneurship in the United States yield to?
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c. finance capitalism
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Prominent business leaders of the late nineteenth century, such as J.P. Morgan, believed ?
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b.Consolidation and central control were preferable to competition
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How did J.P. Morgan achieve his stunning reorganization and consolidation of businesses in the late nineteenth century?
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d.at times formed “a community of interest,” comprised of a few handpicked directors.
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What was accomplished by J.P. Morgan’s railroad companies practice of issuing watered stock?
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b.kept investors happy but caused overcapitalization and debt for the railroads.
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J.P. Morgan acquired the core of what would be the largest corporation in the world when he purchased?
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c. Steel Interests formerly controlled by Andrew Carnegie
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What is an oligopoly?
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b.A competitive business system in which several large companies control production in an industry
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What idea was promoted by the theory of social Darwinism in the late nineteenth century?
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c. Progress is the result of competition, and social reforms and other modes of human interference impede progress
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What message did Andrew Carnegie promote in his gospel of wealth?
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d.Millionaires should be trustees and agents for the poor
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The economic theory of laissez-faire gained political clout in the late nineteenth century because?
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a.the Supreme Court increasingly was reinterpreting the Constitution to protect business.
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The Supreme Court’s late-nineteenth-century reinterpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment helped big business by ?
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b.elevating property rights over all other rights.
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Which of the following factors explains the high voter turnout in national elections during the last three decades of the nineteenth century?
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c.Voting was an important way to get a government job.
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To what did the term solid South refer in the decades after Reconstruction ?
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b.The states of the old Confederacy, which voted Democratic in every election for the next seventy years
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What was evident in the call for a New South in the decades after Reconstruction?
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a.The desire among some Southerners to shift from an agricultural economy to an industrial one
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What was the outcome of the notion that black men were a threat to white women in the South in the late nineteenth century?
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D) An increasing number of lynching’s across the South
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According to Ida B. Wells, lynching was a problem rooted in ?
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a.economics and shifting social structure of the South.
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How did American women respond to the denial of their right to vote in the late nineteenth century?
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c.Women participated in the political process through the anti-lynching, suffrage, and temperance movements
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The presidents who served in the last part of the nineteenth century–Rutherford B. Hayes through William McKinley–?
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d.were overshadowed by business development and party politics at state and local levels.
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Who dominated national politics in the United States during the last decades of the nineteenth century?
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d.Dynamic party bosses
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President James A. Garfield unwittingly helped the cause of civil service reform when he?
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B) was shot by Charles Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker.
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Why were most people looking for government jobs in the 1880s worried about having to pass an examination to qualify?
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c.Few potential employees had enough education to pass a written examination
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The Pendleton Act of 1883 established the Civil Service Commission and ?
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d.prevented newly elected from appointing supporters to positions they were unqualified for.
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What was an important consequence of the civil service reform of the 1880’s?
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a.business became even more influential in politics than before
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Having stated that “the paramount issue this year is moral rather than political,” supporters of Grover Cleveland in 1884 were chagrined to learn that Cleveland had?
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b.fathered a child out of wedlock.
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Why were Irish Catholic voters offended by James G. Blaine’s campaign?
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a.Blaine neglected to respond to a slur on Catholic voters.
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The tariff posed a threat to America’s prosperity in the 1880’s because?
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c.it created a surplus that was not used to produce goods and services.
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The most enthusiastic supporters of the tariff in the nineteenth century were ?
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a.industrialists and westerners who traded in wool, hides and lumber
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Democrats dubbed the Republican-dominated Fifty-first Congress the “Billion Dollar Congress” because it spent the nation’s surplus on ?
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b.Lawmakers’ own constituents
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President Grover Cleveland hoped to increase the nation’s flagging gold reserves during the economic depression in the winter of 1894-95?
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d.making a deal with a private group of bankers, headed by J. P. Morgan, to purchase gold abroad and supply it to the government.

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