Ch. 16 The Cold War

Flashcard maker : Collin Foley
After the Truman Doctrine was put forward, what were the first two countries to receive U.S. assistance to deter a communist takeover?
Greece and Turkey
What is meant by the term, “satellite state”?
a weak country under the influence of a strong country
What did Stalin do at the meeting in Potsdam that alarmed President Truman?
he refused to promise to allow free elections in Eastern Europe
Why was West Berlin described as a “bone in the throat” of the Soviet Union?
West Berlin was an outpost of Western European and American influence deep in Soviet-controlled territory.
The military alliance formed to counterbalance NATO was called
the Warsaw Pact.
in the Chinese Civil War, the Soviet Union supported the
Communists, led by Mao Zedong.
How did lessons learned from World War II influence President Truman’s decision to send troops to aid South Korea after North Korea invaded?
He knew appeasement, or giving in to an aggressor, was not the solution.
how did General MacArthur misjudge the Chinese during the Korean War?
He did not believe their warnings that they would enter the war.
What precedent did President Truman set when he sent troops to Korea?
The President could send U.S. troops overseas without a congressional declaration of war.
The military alliance SEATO included
Pakistan, Australia, and France.
What event in 1957 marked the beginning cold war in space?
The Soviet Union launched the satellite Sputnik I.
What is the meaning of the term arms race?
a never-ending effort to acquire more and more weapons
In 1956, uprisings behind the iron curtain occurred in
Poland and Hungary.
Why was a build up of weapons big enough for mutually assured destruction seen as a way to preserve peace?
the knowledge that both sides would certainly be destroyed in any all-out war would prevent either side from starting hostilities.
Britain and France worried when Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal because
Egypt could now control the supply of oil to Europe.
What did President Truman introduce in 1947 to try to screen out disloyal employees from federal agencies?
Federal Employee Loyalty Program
Which future President was involved in the investigation into Alger Hiss?
Richard Nixon
What gains for communism around the world created the fear that set the stage for the excesses of McCarthyism?
communism in China, Soviet nuclear bombs, and the discovery of Soviet agents in the United States
The Red Scare of the late 1940s and 1950s was the fear that
communists in important positions in American society were working for the enem
What was the last straw for McCarthy in the eyes of the American public?
televised hearings that put his bullying tactics on display for the entire country
What is meant by the term limited war?
a war to achieve specific goals
What types of people were investigated by HUAC?
people from all walks of life throughout American society
In the Korean War, China
Joined the fight when U.S. and UN troops advanced too far north.
What happened to the Hollywood Ten after they refused to testify?
They were tried, convicted, and sent to prison.
The Smith Act of 1940
was used to cripple the Communist Party in the United States.
Why was the United States so alarmed by Mao’s victory in the Chinese civil war?
A communist China could be a threat to the United States.
A fundamental cause of the Cold War was
Western fears of Soviet expansion.
The countries directly involved in the Suez Crisis were
Egypt, Israel, France, and Britain.
George Kennan was
an American diplomat who put forward the idea of containment.
After World War II, what did Stalin want in Europe?
a weak and divided Germany; Eastern Europe under Soviet control
Mutually assured destruction means
both sides are guaranteed to be destroyed in any all-out war.
The idea of the Marshall Plan was to
help European countries get back on their feet economically and also gain influence.
What was the source of the disagreement between Truman and MacArthur?
Truman wanted a limited war, while MacArthur wanted total victory.
NATO was founded to
counter Soviet expansion and protect Western European countries.
At the end of the Korean War, North and South Korea were divided
at approximately the 38th parallel.
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg’s execution was
controversial at the time and debated for many years afterward.
Who was Alger Hiss?
a government employee accused of spying for the Soviet Union
When the Soviet Union crushed the rebellion in Hungary in 1956, the United States
did not do anything to help the Hungarians.
The Eisenhower Doctrine was used in 1958 to
ustify sending troops to Lebanon.
American were unsettled by the Soviet launch of Sputnik I in part because
they worried the Soviets could now use rockets to send bombs to American cities.
What was the Cold War?
An economical, political, struggle between the United States and the USSR following WWII
“Old soldiers never die, they just fade away. So like the old soldier in the poem, I’ll just fade away.”
Old soldiers never die
“Wrong war a the wrong place, at the wrong time, and with the wrong enemy”
Chairman Joint Chiefs
Massive Retaliation is
a military doctrine and nuclear strategy in which a state commits itself to retaliate in much greater force in the event of an attack.
Brinkmanship is
believing that only going by the brink of war could the United States protect its allies, discourage the communist aggression, and prevent war.
Duck and Cover
Americans prepared for the possibility that the Soviet Union might launch nuclear weapons against american cities.
McCarthyism
Term that became a catchword for extreme, reckless charges coined my Joseph McCarthy.

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