Kinesiology Test2

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Philosophers take ___________seriously; these include moods, emotions, ideals, values, and daily experiences.
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intangibles
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____________ is a key component of philosophy. This process helps us to better understand what we have experienced in our daily lives.
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reflection
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All of the following are general issues in philosophy EXCEPT…
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the Hippocratic oath
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The main three goals of philosophy include all of the following EXCEPT…
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to understand the individual ethics of those who participate in physical activity.
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In the 1960s several prominent physical educators appeared on the scene who..
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turned away from education and used philosophical techniques to produce insights about sport.
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Which form of reasoning starts with specific cases in order to develop broad, general principles?
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inductive
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The three reflective reasoning processes of philosophical research are inductive, deductive, and _______ reasoning.
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descriptive
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A person who examines the behavior of 5 or 10 cheerleaders, looks for similarities, and then draws conclusions about the nature of cheerleading in general would be using what kind of reasoning?
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inductive
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This view reflects the belief that subjective experiences are of little value and that humans are complex machines.
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materialism
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The two goals of philosophy of physical activity are: (1) to clarify thinking about physical activity and the mind-body relationship; and (2) to use these insights to make positive changes in people’s lives.
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true
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The Philosophic Society for the Study of Sport founded the Journal of the Philosophy of Sport in the 1970s.
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true
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Deductive reasoning starts with a broad, general principle and examines specific facts that follow from it.
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true
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Games may or may not be experienced as play.
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true
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From the perspective of mind-body dualism, the mind…
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is usually considered superior to the body
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What view sees the mind and body as separate?
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dualistic view
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Which of the following is not true of rules that govern games?
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rules tell us what should be accomplished and how we should go about accomplishing it.
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The significance of skills discussed in the text highlights which of the following statements?
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motor skills represent the standards of excellence by which players evaluate their performance.
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The statement that excellent play is valued illustrates which of the following?
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the process of competing in the game is valued as much as the outcomes that result from the play.
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A comparison of play-like sport to duty-like sport finds that play-like sport considers..
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sport participation justified by its intrinsic value.
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Values…
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can be moral or nonmoral.
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Values can be moral or nonmoral.
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true
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Which of the following is NOT a value promoted by the field of physical activity?
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winning
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Which of the following statements about sport ethics is NOT correct?
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rule bending is acceptable as long as it is not called or noticed by the official.
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The text outlines behavioral guidelines for sport, which include…
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caring about your opponent’s well-being as much as your own.
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Two main physical educators who were early leaders in the field of sport and exercise philosophy in the 1960s were…
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Metheny and Slusher
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The belief that the mind and body are interdependent and work together is…
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holism
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One of the overall goals in studying the history of physical activity is to…
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identify and describe patterns of change and stability in physical activity.
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An important research direction in history of physical activity that began taking shape in the 1980s was…
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history of exercise and health.
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Intercollegiate athletics were inaugurated on American college campuses by…
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students
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The 1920s were known as the…
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Golden Ages of Sports
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The physical education teaching profession took root in the United States…
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just before 1900
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In the first half of the 20th century, the main focus of school physical education classes was…
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sports
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Before the 1950s, scientific research on physical activity…
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often addressed topics that could be applied to teaching.
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From 1900 to 1950, scholarship was influenced by which of the following two items?
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Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Harvard Fatigue Lab
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The passage of this education amendment helped to create more opportunities for women and girls to participate in sport.
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Title IX
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The North American Society for Sport History began in the mid-1950s, and it founded a scholarly journal in the early 1960s.
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false
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Determining the authenticity of written historical evidence involves matters such as who actually authored the piece and the date it was produced.
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true
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Women’s intercollegiate athletics grew on college campuses in the late 19th century at about the same rate as men’s intercollegiate athletics.
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false
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In the second half of the 20th century, growth in participation in exercise and sport greatly outpaced population increases.
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true
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Which of the following best illustrates the most significant change in physical activity in the latter part of the 20th century?
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the focus on health outcomes resulting from physical activity.
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What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative research methods?
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qualitative= words. quantitative= numbers
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The discipline of kinesiology began a phenomenal growth spurt in the…
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1960s
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Which of the following is a primary source of historical evidence?
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a newspaper article about the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics written at the time the Games were in progress.
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Between 1950 and 2000, physical activity professions…
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diversified and expanded.
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Sport historians would be more interested in which source of information?
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1968 baseball player who remembers things well.
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A historian of physical activity would look at…
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patterns of change and stability in a culture during a time period.
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The NASSH was designed in 1972 to attract a broader scholarly membership including women, Canadians, and international scholars beyond North America. What does NASSH stand for?
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North American Society for Sport History
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During what decade did kinesiology subdisciplines develop a recognizable identity in North America?
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1960
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History of physical activity teaches us about _____ as well as _____ in the past, which helps us understand the past as well as the present and make reasonable decisions for the future.
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changes;stability
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What are the two analytical frameworks used by historians to make sense of data they have collected in their research of history of physical activity?
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modernization theory and human agency
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When did the physical education profession begin?
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1840-1900
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Pedro is doing research for a school project. He is reading a book about kinesiology written by an engineer who has never knowingly engaged in physical activity. What type of rule is used in determining the credibility of the source?
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rule of perspective
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In the World War II period, from 1943 to 1952, what professional sport league started for women?
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baseball
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By the 1860s, many amateur ____________ teams were on their way to becoming professionalized; common practices by that time included charging admission and paying players.
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baseball
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One of the goals of sociology of physical activity is to look at physical activity with a penetrating gaze that goes beyond our common understanding of social life. The text says that this requires…
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a dash of skepticism about common assumptions.
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The North American Society for the Sociology of Sport, the major scholarly society in the subdiscipline in North America, was founded..
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after Europeans founded a scholarly association in sport sociology.
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If you ask for responses to a questionnaire that you mail to athletes on 10 varsity teams, you are probably engaged in which type of research?
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survey research
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Although girls and women are participating in sport and other physical activities in greater numbers now than in earlier decades, females still tend to take part in sports that involve less..
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body contact among players
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According to the text, ideals in our society concerning women’s body size and appearance have led some women to an extreme response that involves…
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becoming anorexic
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In the mid-1990s African American athletes were being portrayed on TV as having..
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stronger physical skills than whites.
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Which of the following is NOT a component of socioeconomic status?
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linguistic skills
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A sociologist in kinesiology would know that in women’s college basketball there are now many more men coaches than women coaches.
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true
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Race and ethnicity are similar concepts that are basically interchangeable.
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false
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Sociologists of physical activity seldom rely on a physical lab space, but rather they see all sport settings in the social world as their laboratory.
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true
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Both the amateur and professional models of intercollegiate athletics often lead to exploitation of student-athletes.
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true
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Individuals’ opposition to the use of American Indians as mascots is based on the belief that this practice actually distorts and trivializes the culture rather than honors it.
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true
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Which of the following is a major influence on female participation in collegiate athletics?
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Title IX legislation
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The term gender refers to..
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a set of norms and expectations about how we should behave based on society’s understanding of sexuality.
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Does participation in physical activity vary by race?
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yes, and there is also great variation across types of physical activity.
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Physical activity sociologists…
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conduct research in natural settings.
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What type of research uses qualitative and quantitative methods?
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mixed method
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Which of these methods do researchers use to spend many months or even years in observation of a particular social setting?
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ethnography
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The ability to do what you want without being stopped by others best defines which of the following terms?
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power
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Which of the following does NOT pertain to power?
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news
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Which of the following is one of the three main goals of the sociology of physical activity?
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to identify and analyze patterns of change and stability in physical activity.
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Sociologists gain information about physical activity through all of these methods EXCEPT..
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ophthalmology
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What is thematic analysis?
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an approach that examines material such as magazines and newspapers and then categorizes the content in various ways.
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Sociology of physical activity focuses on..
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shared beliefs and social practices that constitute specific forms of physical activity.
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If someone came up to you and asked you to analyze a series of pictures of collegiate athletes and sort them into categories, what type of research method would this person be using?
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thematic analysis
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Sociologists of physical activity conduct studies of which of the following?
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ongoing social life as it ordinarily occurs.
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Researchers have found that there are several potential reasons that there are more men coaching and administrating women’s athletics. These reasons include all of the following EXCEPT..
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qualified women are still playing sports professionally, so they are not able to take on these leadership roles as coaches and administrators.
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What is NOT a goal of sociology of physical activity?
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to analyze athletes and their physical activity.
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Who was the father of motor behavior?
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Franklin Henry
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Motor behavior includes three sub disciplines. Which is NOT one of the sub disciplines?
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motor performance
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The experimental design used in motor behavior research to determine the impact of two different types of practice on the same skill performance would be identified as..
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dual design
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All of the following examine learning (rather than performance) EXCEPT..
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a test of accuracy immediately after practice for accuracy.
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The principle that practice should match the performance environment for maximal improvement is..
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specificity of practice.
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Boys and girls are similar in motor skill performance during childhood EXCEPT in one skill, in which the gender difference is substantial. Select the exception.
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throwing
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Knowledge of results focuses on ____________, whereas knowledge of performance focuses on ___________.
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outcome; process of movement
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Practice guarantees improved performance.
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false
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Boys and girls are more similar than different in motor skill performance.
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true
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Pedagogy, the study of teaching, applies motor behavior research.
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true
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Motor behavior research is closely related to biomechanics.
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true
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This time period is considered one of the greatest eras of interest in motor behavior.
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World War II (1939-1945)
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Skill acquisition, one of the five areas studied in motor control, is about learning.
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true
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The type of performance experience engaged in for the express purpose of refining motor control function to improve skill is known as..
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practice
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Feedback that produces the greatest improvement in performance and potentially produces the greatest learning..
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varies depending on the expertise of the performer.
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The focus of motor behavior research today includes..
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potential treatments of disease and injury, including Parkinson’s disease.
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What differentiates motor learning (ML) from motor control (MC)?
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acquisition versus neuromuscular activity.
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What type of researcher studies differences in growth patterns in children ages 2 to 12 years?
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motor development expert
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Who wrote the first major theoretical paper from the discipline of kinesiology on what was known as the memory drum theory?
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Franklin Henry
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Research on ___________ often compares novices and experts to determine how they differ within various sports. For example, they want to determine why some children are more advanced performers than adults attempting the same skill.
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motor expertise
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Which of the following is most critical in helping students develop skills?
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ample appropriate practice opportunities.
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While his players are working out, a coach notices a mistake in an athlete’s form. The coach tells the player what might work better and how to do it. What type of feedback is the coach giving the player?
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extrinsic feedback
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Practicing a skill is most likely to bring about which of the following?
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learning
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According to the text, which kind of practice makes perfect?
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correct
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After John kicked the football from the 22-yard line, he heard the referee yell, “It’s good.” What type of knowledge was expressed by the referee?
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knowledge of results- extrinsic feedback
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A coach tells a player the correct way to inbound a basketball from the sideline; at the same time the coach is demonstrating how to throw the ball inbound in a game-like situation. What is taking place?
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extrinsic feedback and observational learning
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What is the best way to set goals to achieve the best results?
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set a goal that requires moderate effort to achieve.
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Which experimental design compares two groups (randomly formed) on the same task (movement speed)?
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between-group design
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What are some environmental conditions that might affect learning in sport?
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feedback, practice, transfer
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What is electromyography?
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a system for monitoring and recording the electrical activity in muscles.

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