Ch.16 Social Psychology

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social psychology
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the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
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attribution theory
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suggests how we explain someone’s behavior—by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition.
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fundamental attribution error
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the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
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attitude
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feelings often based on our beliefs, which predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
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foot-in-the-door phenomenon
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the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
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cognitive dissonance theory
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the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
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conformity
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adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
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informational social influence
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influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality.
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normative social influence
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influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
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social facilitation
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stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
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social inhibition
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worse responses on difficult or amateur tasks in the presence of others
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social loafing
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the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
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deindividuation
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the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
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group polarization
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the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
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groupthink
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the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives (avoid via deivils advocate)
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discrimination
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unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
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prejudice
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an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action (3 factors- stereotypes, negative feelings, and discrimination)
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stereotype
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a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
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ingroup
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\”us\”—people with whom one shares a common identity.
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ingroup bias
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the tendency to favor one’s own group.
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outgroup
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\”them\”—those perceived as different or apart from one’s ingroup.
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scapegoat theory
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the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
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just-world phenomenon
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the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
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aggression
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any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
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frustration-aggression principle
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the principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression.
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conflict
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a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
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social trap
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a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
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mere exposure effect
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the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
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companionate love
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the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
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passionate love
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an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
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equity
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a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
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self-disclosure
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revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
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altruism
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unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
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bystander effect
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the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
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reciprocity norm
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an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
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social exchange theory
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the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
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social-responsibility norm
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an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
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superordinate goals
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shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
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GRIT
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Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction, strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
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mirror imapge perceptions
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mutual view often held by conflicting people as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as agressive
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other race effect
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the tendancy to recall faces of ones own race mmore accurately than faces of other races
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discrimination
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unjustifyable negative behavior toward a group and its members
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role
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a set of explanations about a social position, defining how those in a position aught to behave
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peripheral route to persuasion
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occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness
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central route to persuasion
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occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and facts and respond to favorable thoughts
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social dilema
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being in groups affects how we make decisions (take into account your relationship, trust, the other person’s sanity, consequences)
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social trap
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when people do what’s good for themselves yet bad for the group
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commoners dilema
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when people have something to gain, they usually take more than their fair share
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prisoners dilema
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if people have something to lose, they do whats good for themselves and confess or cooperate
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self fulfilling prophesy
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when we are expected to do something, we do it, and thus succumb to the expectations
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chameleon effect
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unconsiously mimiking other’s expressions, postures, and voice tones which helps us feel what they feel (part of empathy)
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mood linkage
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sharing happy and sad moods
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actor bias
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we blame the situation for the cause off our behavior
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observer bias
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we blame the personalities of the person for the behavior
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compliance
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behavior changes without effort or argument, as a result of request
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zero sum environments
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a situation where resources are strictly limited and allocations based on any decisions cancell out
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minimax strategy
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the effort people make to minimize their costs and maximize their rewards
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saddle point
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in this context, an equilibrium of a two-person zero-sum game where the payoff of one player is simultaneously maximized with respect to his own strategy choice and minimized with respect to the strategy choice of the other player

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