Ch. 16- Skinner Essay

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According to Skinner, scientists seldom fabricate data mostly because
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correct data will be discovered and embarrass the fabricator.
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What Freud saw as unconsciously motivated defense mechanisms, Skinner viewed as
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behaviors shaped by environmental contingencies.
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Thorndike’s original law of effect stated that
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Both of these are correct.
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A response to a similar environment in the absence of previous reinforcement was Skinner’s definition of
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stimulus generalization.
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Skinner’s scientific behaviorism assumes that
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human behavior is subject to the laws of science.
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Skinner would view warfare as an example o
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maladaptive remnant of cultural evolution.
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Which of the following is NOT a principal characteristic of science, according to Skinner?
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Science explains behavior.
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Skinner viewed the unhealthy personality as
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a means of coping with excessive social control.
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Negative and positive reinforcement are alike in that they
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strengthen the behavior they follow.
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As a young man, Skinner wanted to become a
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writer.
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For Skinner, an important distinction between classical conditioning and operant conditioning is that in classical conditioning behavior is _______, whereas in operant conditioning behavior is ________.
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elicited; demitted
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Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical conditioning primarily in that operant conditioning involves
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immediate reinforcement of a response.
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Skinner believed that passive resistance is most likely to be used
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after escape and revolt have failed.
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Skinner’s principal contribution to psychotherapy was as
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a writer whose ideas have influenced the behavior therapy movement.
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On the subject of dreams, Skinner believed that
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many dreams serve a wish-fulfillment purpose.
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With reference to inner states such as thoughts and drives, Skinner said that they
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exist, but should not be used to explain behavior.
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Skinner believed that the most useful data for predicting and controlling behavior are
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people’s personal histories.
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Skinner defines negative reinforcement as any condition that,
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when removed from a situation, increase the probability that a given behavior will occur.
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In his philosophy of science, Skinner
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wanted to know how behavior can be described, predicted, and controlled.
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Negative reinforcement and punishment are similar in that they both
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involve aversive stimuli.
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During World War II, Skinner
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trained pigeons to pilot missiles into enemy targets.
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Skinner believed that the most critical aspect of science is
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an attitude valuing empirical observation.
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Fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed-interval, and variable-interval are examples of
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intermittent schedules.
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Skinner believed that the effects of punishment are
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less predictable than those of reward.
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Skinner believed that people
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can design a society that will produce psychologically healthy personalities.
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Skinner’s laboratory research at Harvard consisted exclusively of experiments
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with only non-human animals.
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Which of these schedules would cost the experimenter the most reinforcers for the least number of responses?
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continuous
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When operant conditioning is used to shape complex behavior such as playing a piano, reinforcement is applied
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through successive approximations.
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Payment by salary or wage most closely approximates which schedule of reinforcement?
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fixed-interval
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Payment by piece rate (for example, paying a bricklayer a set amount for each brick laid) most closely approximates which schedule of reinforcement?
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fixed -ratio
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The three conditions essential to operant conditioning are
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the antecedent, the behavior, and the consequence.
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Unlike punishment, reinforcement
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gives information as to desired behavior.
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For Skinner, natural selection
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is probably responsible for some human behavior.
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Which of these did Skinner NOT list as an effect of punishment?
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shaping of the targeted behavior
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According to Skinner, a clear example of a conditioned reinforcer would be
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money.
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Behavior reinforced on an intermittent schedule is
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resistant to extinction.
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To Skinner, human personality is shaped by
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both of these.
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Concerning drives, Skinner said that they
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are responses to deprivation or satiation.
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To stop her 2-year-old daughter from crying, Sandy consistently gives the child a piece of candy whenever she cries. Such behavior i
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both of these.
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According to Skinner, the rate of operant extinction depends largely upon the
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schedule of reinforcement
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John Watson argued that
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the goal for psychology should be the prediction and control of behavior.
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What is Skinner’s basic view of human freedom?
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The idea of freedom is positively reinforcing for many people.
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For Skinner, inappropriate behavior is shaped by
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all of these.
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Which of these would NOT be considered by Skinner to be a generalized reinforcer?
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food
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The label that best fits Skinner’s work is
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radical behaviorsm.
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Skinner saw the psychotherapist as a
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controlling agent.
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People who make rewards or punishments contingent on the behavior of another are using which of Skinner’s methods of social control?
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operant conditioning
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Skinner’s technique of “doing something else” is used
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soley with self-control.
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What was Skinner’s position on such internal mental states as thinking and feeling?
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they exist, but scientists should not attribute behavior to them.
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When she was in the 7th grade, Dawn made 10 written book reports. Now, she can no longer recall the title of eight of those books. Skinner would say this loss is most likely due to
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forgetting
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Skinner’s midlife crisis and emotional catharsis ended with
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his writing of Walden Two.
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The systematic withholding of reinforcement previously contingent upon a response until the probability of the response diminishes to zero is Skinner’s definition of
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extinction.
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Concerning reinforcement, Skinner would most likely say that
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money has value because it is reinforcing.
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According to Skinner, human behavior is shaped by
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the contingencies of survival.
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Skinner would view warfare as an example of
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a maladaptive of cultural evolution evolution.
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Skinner believed that passive resistance is most likely to be use
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after escape and revolt have failed.
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To stop her 2-year-old daughter from crying, Sandy consistently gives the child a piece of candy whenever she cries. Such behavior is
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both of these
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Skinner accepted the concept of unconscious
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behavior.
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Skinner believed that some behavior is unconscious because the person does not think about the aversive stimuli connected with it. Not thinking about aversive stimuli is an example of
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negative reinforcement
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Which of these, according to Skinner, would be a means of self-control?
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All of these.
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Skinner believed that human behavior is shaped by all these factors EXCEPT
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the individual’s personal drive state
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Research with Skinner’s behavior management techniques has generally shown that
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differences in temperament affect the ways that people respond to behavior management techniques.
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Skinner called any stimulus within the environment that strengthens behavior
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reinforcer.
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Concerning emotions, Skinner believed all EXCEPT which of the following?
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A majority of human behaviors are the result of emotions.
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Skinner explained problem solving by
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the reinforcement of covert responses.
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Which term is LEAST descriptive of B. F. Skinner?
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psychodynamic
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For Skinner, observable behavior
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None of these is correct.
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Any behavior that tends to reduce or avoid conditions that are detrimental to the survival of the organism is
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negatively reinforced.
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According to Skinner, advertising is a method of social control through
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describing contingencies.
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With what schedule of reinforcement is an organism reinforced for the first response following a designated period of time?
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fixed-interval
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Skinner’s work was MOST influenced by
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John Watson.
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According to Skinner, abused children may choose to remain with their parents because
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Any or all of these reasons are correct.
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Grant has been planning a trip to Italy after he graduates with a degree in art. How would Skinner explain Grant’s planning?
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Grant’s planning behavior is positively reinforcing
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Skinner’s view of humanity can best be termed as
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deterministic
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Young Tyler has learned that his mother always hides the cookies on the top shelf of the hall closet. After Tyler’s mother noticed cookies missing, she decided to hide the cookie jar in a new place. After several unrewarding trips to the top shelf of the hall closet, Tyler stops looking there. Skinner would say that the disappearance of this response is due to
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operant extinction
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Skinner believed that self-control depends ultimately upon
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environmental variables.

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