Ch. 16 Psychology

question

social psychology
answer

Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?
question

how people explain others’ behavior
answer

Attribution theory was designed to account for
question

a dispositional attribution
answer

Ksana insists that her boyfriend’s car accident resulted from his carelessness. Her explanation for the accident provides an example of
question

assigned roles
answer

The fundamental attribution error is illustrated in our tendency to underestimate the extent to which others’ behavior is influenced by
question

belief-based feelings
answer

Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior
question

actions may sometimes be inconsistent with attitudes
answer

Politicians who publicly oppose a tax increase that they privately favor best illustrate that
question

foot-in-the-door phenomenon
answer

The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by the
question

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
answer

After they had first agreed to display a 3-inch “Be a Safe Driver” sign, California home owners were highly likely to permit the installation of a very large and unattractive “Drive Carefully” sign in their front yards. This best illustrates
question

role
answer

The set of prescribed behaviors associated with a particular social position is best described as a(n)
question

role-playing on attitudes
answer

Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of
question

cognitive dissonance
answer

The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called
question

the chameleon effect
answer

Unconsciously mimicking those around us is known as
question

mood linkage
answer

We tend to feel cheerful around happy people and sad around depressed people. This illustrates
question

conformity
answer

Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called
question

visual perception
answer

Research participants believed that the Asch conformity test involved a study of
question

he feels insecure in his role as a new member of the team
answer

Alex thinks smoking is addictive but other players on his hockey team insist that it’s not. Alex is likely to conform to their opinion if
question

informational social influence
answer

After hearing respected medical authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Raul, who has rarely exercised, begins to jog regularly. The change in Raul’s behavior best illustrates the impact of
question

nonconformity
answer

A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage
question

deliver electric shocks to a learner for giving incorrect answers
answer

Participants in the Milgram obedience studies were ordered to
question

the “teachers” were more obedient than most people would have predicted
answer

Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram’s initial obedience experiment because
question

“teachers” were deceived and frequently subjected to stress
answer

The Milgram obedience experiments were controversial because the
question

even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction
answer

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that
question

perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others
answer

Social facilitation refers to the tendency to
question

social facilitation.
answer

Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates
question

exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal
answer

Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to
question

social loafing
answer

University students were observed to pull harder on a rope when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling with them on the same rope. This best illustrates
question

a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
answer

Deindividuation refers to
question

group polarization
answer

The enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through group discussion is called
question

group polarization
answer

Nora, Ko, Ian, and May each think that Ms. Akey may be a slightly better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. After discussing why each of them believes this to be so, they all conclude that Ms. Akey is definitely a much better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. This episode provides an example of
question

groupthink
answer

A business leader who welcomes a variety of opinions from subordinates and invites experts’ critiques of her company’s developing plans is most likely to inhibit
question

an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
answer

Prejudice is best defined as
question

stereotypes
answer

Overgeneralized beliefs about a group of people that often underlie prejudicial emotions are called
question

a response to frustration
answer

Studies of implicit attitudes indicate that prejudice is often
question

implicit attitudes
answer

Prejudice can be not only subtle but also automatic and unconscious. This is best illustrated in studies of
question

social inequalities
answer

Prejudice is most likely to develop as a way of justifying
question

ingroup bias
answer

Most children believe their school is better than the other schools in town. This best illustrates
question

the scapegoat theory
answer

Montel, a White university student, is on academic probation for poor grades. Ever since he received notice of his probation, Montel has become increasingly hostile toward racial minority students and staff on campus. His increasing hostility can best be explained in terms of
question

the just-world phenomenon
answer

In laboratory experiments, merely observing someone receive painful electric shocks leads viewers to think less of the victim. This reaction is best explained in terms of
question

genetic influences
answer

Comparisons of identical and fraternal twins highlight the impact of ________ on aggression
question

frustration-aggression principle
answer

After Manny’s father refused to let him use the family car on Friday night, Manny let all the air out of the tires. His action is best explained in terms of the
question

aggression
answer

Ostracism has been observed to intensify
question

modeling violence
answer

Aggression-replacement programs are most likely to advise parents to avoid
question

role-playing aggression
answer

In contrast to watching violence on television, participating in violent video games involves
question

experience increasing attraction to novel stimuli that become more familiar
answer

The mere exposure effect refers to the fact that people
question

the mere exposure effect
answer

After three months of riding the 8:30 bus to work, Cindy has actually started to feel affection for the gruff and scowling old bus driver. Cindy’s reaction best illustrates
question

level of earned income
answer

People’s physical attractiveness is unrelated to their
question

passionate love
answer

In an experiment by Dutton and Aron, one group of men were asked by an attractive woman to complete a short questionnaire immediately after they had crossed a swaying footbridge suspended 230 feet above the Capilano River. This experiment was designed to study the factors that contribute to
question

companionate love
answer

The affectionate attachment that keeps a relationship going after passionate feelings cool is known as
question

equity
answer

Sharing household chores ranks high on a list of things people associate with successful marriages. This best illustrates the perceived value of
question

self-disclosure
answer

Natasha and Dimitri have a fulfilling marital relationship because they readily confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of
question

altruism
answer

The tragic murder of Kitty Genovese outside her New York apartment stimulated social-psychological research on
question

the bystander effect
answer

When 12-year-old Jamilah saw an old man lying on the sidewalk, he prepared to offer help. But when he noticed several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help. His reaction most clearly illustrates one of the dynamics involved in
question

social-responsibility norm
answer

An expectation that people will help those who depend on them is known as the
question

mirror-image perceptions
answer

Two conflicting groups who share the same negative views of one another demonstrate
question

interracial contact
answer

An increase in ________ has been followed by more positive attitudes between South African Whites and Blacks
question

superordinate goals
answer

Sherif planned a disruption of the water supply in a Boy Scout camp in order to observe how social relationships are influenced by
question

a win-win solution
answer

Pablo and Sabina argued bitterly about which of them should have use of the family car that night. Neither realized, however, that Sabina needed the car only in the early evening and that Pablo needed it only in the late evening. Pablo and Sabina’s failure to resolve their argument for their mutual benefit illustrates a failure to develop
question

the fundamental attribution error
answer

Marilyn judges her professor’s strict class attendance policy to be an indication of his overcontrolling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions in a course that meets only once a week. Her judgment best illustrates
question

foot-in-the-door phenomenon
answer

Bart complied with his friends’ request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart’s experience best illustrates the
question

role-playing on attitude change
answer

Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding the impact of
question

normative social influence
answer

In making wedding preparations, Jason conforms to the expectations of his future bride’s family simply to win their favor. His behavior illustrates the importance of
question

learning
answer

Participants in Milgram’s obedience experiments were informed that they were involved in a study of
question

social facilitation
answer

Bonnie pedals an exercise bike at her health club much faster when other patrons happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates
question

group polarization
answer

When a group of racially prejudiced high school students discussed racial issues, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This best illustrates
question

ingroup bias
answer

Kelly, a Republican, and Carlos, a Democrat, both believe that members of their own political party are more fair-minded and trustworthy than members of other parties. Their beliefs best illustrate
question

the just-world phenomenon
answer

When visiting the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp shortly after World War II, one German civilian was said to have remarked, “What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment.” This reaction is best explained in terms of
question

more; more
answer

After extensive exposure to X-rated sexual films, men are subsequently ________ accepting of women’s sexual submission to men and _______ likely to perceive a woman’s friendliness as sexual interest
question

the mere exposure effect
answer

When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference best illustrates the importance of
question

the two-factor theory
answer

Which theory best explains why the excitement that lingers after a frightening event can facilitate passionate love?
question

the bystander effect
answer

Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer located 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued walking along the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics involved in
question

a social trap
answer

Max fails to recycle his glass, metal, and plastic garbage because he thinks it’s personally inconvenient and likely to have minimal impact on the city’s already overflowing landfills. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics of
question

superordinate goals
answer

The hostilities between two racial subgroups of a riverfront community were dramatically reduced when the threat of their river flooding its banks required that they work together to save their town. This best illustrates the impact of
question

underestimating situational constraints on another’s behavior
answer

The fundamental attribution error involves
question

cognitive dissonance theory
answer

Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite having doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the student’s abilities?
question

the chameleon effect
answer

Research participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot were observed to do the same thing themselves. This best illustrated
question

participants are not observed by other group members when giving their answers
answer

Using the Asch procedure, conformity to group judgments would be LEAST likely when
question

no others were pulling with them
answer

In a study of social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students tugged hardest when they thought
question

deindividuation
answer

Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda’s unusual behavior is best understood in terms of
question

harmony
answer

Groupthink is fueled by a desire for
question

the scapegoat theory
answer

Evidence that people exhibit heightened levels of prejudice when they are economically frustrated offers support for
question

the frustration-aggression principle
answer

Shortly after Alex learned that he had failed to make the high school football team, he vandalized the team’s locker room and broke several classroom windows. His behavior is best explained in terms of
question

frequency of dating
answer

People’s physical attractiveness is a good predictor of their
question

equity
answer

Although Natalie receives somewhat greater rewards from her marriage than does her husband, both are satisfied with the relationship because they each benefit in proportion to what they put into it. This best illustrates the significance of
question

altruism
answer

When Hutu militia began to slaughter the Tutsi in 1994, missionary Carl Wilkens risked his own life to save the lives of others. His actions best illustrated
question

the reciprocity norm
answer

After Mrs. Chanski and her children had helped themselves to free samples of the cookies being promoted in the grocery store, she felt obligated to buy some, even though they seemed unreasonably expensive. Her reaction best illustrates the significance of
question

mirror-image perceptions
answer

Although the leaders of two enemy nations admit to a buildup of their own military forces, each sees the other country’s actions as unreasonable and motivated by evil intentions. This situation best illustrates
question

GRIT
answer

Initiating one or more small conciliatory acts is a central feature of

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member