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CH. 15: GOVERNMENT AT WORK – THE BUREAUCRACY (Magruder’s American Government)

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Bureaucracy
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A large, complex administrative structure that handles the everyday business of an organization.
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Hierarchical authority, job specialization, and formalized rules
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Three key features of a bureaucracy
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Hierarchical
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term which describes any organization that is built as a pyramid, with a chain of command running from the top of the pyramid to the bottom
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Bureaucrat
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A person who works for a bureaucratic organization; unelected public-policy makers
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Federal bureaucracy
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all of the agencies, people, and procedures through which the Federal Government operates
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Administration
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The officials in the executive branch of a government and their policies and principles.
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Department
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term reserved for cabinet level agencies
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Agency or administration
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terms often used to refer to any governmental body
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Commission
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name usually given to agencies charged with the regulation of business activities, such as the FCC and the SEC, but also used for some investigative, advisory, and reporting bodies including the CRC and the FEC
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Corporation or authority
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titles most often given to those agencies that conduct business-like activities like the FDIC and TVA
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Bureau
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the name often given to the major elements in a department, but service, administration, office, branch, and division are often used for the same purpose
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Staff Agency
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An agency which supports the chief executive and other administrators by offering advice and other assistance and management in the organization; for example, the agencies that make up the Executive Office of the President each exist as staff support to the President
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Line Agency
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An agency which performs the tasks for which the organization exists, operating “on the line” where “the action” is
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Executive Office of the President
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(EOP) An umbrella agency, an organization of several agencies staffed by the president’s closet advisors; It’s made up of these staff agencies like the White House Office, the National Security Council, the Office of Management and Budget
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The White House Office
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the “nerve center” of the Executive Office of the President made up of the president’s key personal and political staff in the West Wing (the Oval Office and the Cabinet Room) and the East Wing
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The National Security Council
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(NSC) meets at the President’s call to advise him in all domestic, foreign, and military matters that relate to the nation’s security; the President chairs the council; other members include the Vice Pres., the Secretaries of State and Defense, the director of the CIA and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
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The Office of Management and Budget
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((OMB) prepares the federal budget which the President must present to Congress in Jan. or Feb. of every year; it also monitors the spending of the funds Congress appropriates, checks and clears agency stands on all legislative matters, and helps the President prepare executive orders; headed by the Budget Director
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Federal Budget
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A detailed financial document containing estimates of federal income and spending during the coming fiscal year
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Fiscal Year
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A 12-month period used by a government and the business world for its record-keeping, budgeting, revenue collecting, and other financial management purposes.
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The Council of Economic Advisors
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made up of three of the country’s leading economists, it is the President’s major source of information and advice on the economy
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Domestic Affairs
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All matters not directly connected to the realm of foreign affairs
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Executive Departments
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Often called the cabinet departments, they are the traditional units of federal administration
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Secretary
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An official in charge of a department of government
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Attorney General
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The head of the department of justice.
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Independent Agencies
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Additional agencies created by Congress located outside the Cabinet departments; for example, the General Services Administration (GSA) and the Office of Personnel and Management (OPM)
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Independent Executive Agencies
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Agencies headed by a single administrator with regional subunits, but lacking Cabinet status
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Independent Regulatory Commissions
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Independent agencies created by Congress, designed to regulate important aspects of the nation’s economy, largely beyond the reach of presidential control.
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Quasi-Legislative
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Having to do with powers that are to some extent legislative.
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Quasi-Judicial
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Having to do with powers that are to some extent judicial.
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Government Corporation
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Corporations within the executive branch subject to the President’s direction and control, set up by Congress to carry out certain business-like activities.
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Civil Service
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Those civilian employees who perform the administrative work of government.
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Spoils System
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The practice of giving offices and other favors of government to political supporters and friends.
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Patronage
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The practice of giving jobs to supporters and friends.
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The Pendleton Act
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legislation which laid the foundation of the present federal civil service system
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90%
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approximate percentage of members of the federal work force who are covered by the merit system
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The Office of Personnel Management
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the central clearinghouse in the federal recruiting, examining, and hiring process
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Register
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A record or list of names, often kept by an official appointed to do so.
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Bipartisan
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Supported by two parties.
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The Hatch Act
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prevented pernicious political activities; today federal workers may not run in partisan elections, engage in party work on government property or while on the job, collect political contributions from subordinates or the general public, or use a government position to influence an election, but in addition to voting, they can help register voters, contribute money to campaigns, and even hold office in a political party