Test Answers on Ch. 14 – Flashcard

Flashcard maker : Alexander Rose
generalized anxiety disorder
anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
-concentration is difficult, person cannot identify it’s cause (free floating), often accompanied by a depressed mood
-may lead to physical problems such as ulcers and high blood pressure
-by age 50 it becomes rare

panic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
-panic attacks (heart palpitations, shortness of breath, choking sensations, trembling, or dizziness usually accompany the attack)

phobia
anxiety disorder marked by persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation

agoraphobia
fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes

obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
-more common among teens and young adults than among older people

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
-used to be called shellshock or battle fatigue
-some symptoms may be genetically predisposed (identical twins who did not experience combat had similar symptoms as those who did)

the greater one’s emotional distress during a trauma…
the higher the risk for post-traumatic symptoms

post-traumatic growth
positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
-Ex. facing cancer often leads people to have an increased appreciation for life

dissociative disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
-a person appears to experience a sudden loss of memory or change in identity often in response to an overwhelmingly stressful situation
-a sense of being unreal, of being separated from their body, or of watching themselves as if in a movie (“I wasn’t myself at the time”)

dissociative identity disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities (formerly called multiple personality disorder)
-the original personality usually denies any awareness of the other personality

mood disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
-two principle forms: major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder

major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

the number one reason people seek mental health services
depression

leading cause of disability worldwide
depression

mania
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
-person is usually overtalkative, overactive, and elated; has little need for sleep; and shows fewer sexual inhibitions
-does often fuel creativity

bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania (formerly called manic-depressive disorder)

the hippocampus
is vulnerable to stress-related damage

norepinephrine
increases arousal and boosts mood
-scarce during depression and overabundant during mania

serotonin
scarce during depression
-boosting this may promote recovery from depression by stimulating hippocampus neuron growth

drugs that relieve depression
tend to increase norepinephrine or serotonin supplies by blocking either their reuptake or their chemical breakdown

the social cognitive perspective
explores the roles of thinking and acting
-look at how self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory style feed depressions’ cycle

self-defeating beliefs may arise from
learned helplessness (more common in women than in men; women also have a greater emotional memory than men)

explanatory style
who or what one blames for their failures

people genetically disposed to depression
more often experience depressing events

schizophrenia
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions

delusions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders (I’m the president, I’m Marry Poppins!)
-often result from a breakdown in selective attention

hallucinations
sensory experiences without sensory stimulation- seeing, feeling, tasting, or smelling things that are not there

dopamine
overactivity may intensify brain signals in schizophrenia

schizophrenia and the brain
-people with schizophrenia have abnormal activity in multiple brain areas (some have low brain activity in frontal lobes which are critical for reasoning, planning, and problem solving)
-display a decline in the brain waves that reflect synchronized neural firing in the frontal lobes

two known risk factors for schizophrenia
low birth rate and oxygen deprivation during delivery
-famine and mid-pregnancy viral infections may also increase risks

if an identical twin has schizophrenia the co-twin’s chances of being similarly afflicted are
6 in 10 if they shared a placenta (fraternal twins do not share a placenta so the chances are only 1 in 10)

personality disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

narcissistic personality disorder
self-focused and self-inflating

antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members (may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist)
-formerly called a psychopath or sociopath

Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is
preventing her from functioning effectively

The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of
social circumstances and psychological factors

a fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often
bias our perceptions of the labeled person

Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn’t know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from
generalized anxiety disorder

The experience of depression ______ risk taking and ______ aggression
inhibits
inhibits

Elmer, the owner of a auto service station, suddenly began smashing the front fenders and hoods of two customer’s cars. When asked why, he excitedly explained that he was transforming the cars into “real racing machines”. When an employee tried to restrain him he shouted that everyone was fired and quickly began breaking the car windows. Elmer is exhibiting symptoms of
mania

of those who talk of suicide, ________ actually attempt suicide. of those who attempt suicide _________ succeed in completing the act
only a few
only a few

people who suffer chronic depression are at high risk for experiencing
social rejection

Mr. Hunt believes that he is the president of the United States and that he will soon become “King of the Universe”. Mr. Hunt is most clearly suffering from
delusions

Although Mrs. Petrides usually sits passively in a motionless stupor, she sometimes repetitiously shakes her head or waves her arm. She most likely suffers from
catatonia

Psychologists are LEAST likely to suggest that _______ contributes to the development of schizophrenia
neglectful child-rearing practices

the distinctive older term psychopath refers to an individual with
antisocial personality disorder

The __________ has the highest prevalence of mental disorders
United States

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