Ch 11 psy4604

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How did Bandura believe behavior could be controlled?
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– whoever controls society’s models controls behavior. – by visualizing the consequences of a particular behavior we have not personally experienced and then making a conscious decision to behave or not behave similarly
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What was the main focus of study for neobehaviorists?
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learning
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What is operationism?
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The idea that a concept is the same as the corresponding set of procedures to measure it -aka, things can only be defined if they can bemeasured
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What was the first stage in the evolution of the behavioral school of thought?
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Watson’s behaviorism
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How did Hull’s form of behaviorism compare to Watson’s?
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Hull’s form of behaviorism was more sophisticated and complex than Watson’s – Hull: \”Watson is too naive. His behaviorism is too simple and crude\”
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How was Skinner’s research unique among other major neobehaviorists?
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– advocated a totally empirical system with no theoretical framework within which to conduct research or to explain the results
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What is the \”third stage\” of behaviorism?
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*sociobehaviorism* – includes Bandura and Rotter – a return to the consideration of cognitive processes while maintaining a focus on the observation of overt behavior
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Where did the term \”social learning theory\” come from?
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-Rotter -we learn through social experiences
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What is self-efficacy?
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One’s sense of self-esteem and competence in dealing with life’s problems
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What is the difference between locus of control and self-efficacy?
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locus of control can be generalized over many different situations while self-efficacy seems to be related to more specific situations.
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What is the second stage of behaviorism
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neobehaviorism
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three points of neobehaviorism
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-The core of psychology is the study of learning – Most behavior, no matter how complex, can be accounted for by the laws of conditioning – Psychology must adopt the principle of operationism.
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Edward C. Tolman’s system combining the objective study of behavior with the consideration of goal-orientation in behavior is called ____.
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purposive behaviorism
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Intervening variables
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Unobserved and inferred factors within the organism that are the actual determinants of behavior ex: hunger can’t be seen but can be measured by length of time since last eating or how much food eaten
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Hypothetico-deductive method
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Hull’s method for establishing postulates from which experimentally testable conclusions can be deduced
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Law of primary reinforcement
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-Hull – When a stimulus-response relationship is followed by a reduction in a bodily need, the probability increases that on subsequent occasions the same stimulus will evoke the same response.
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Habit strength
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– Hull – The strength of the stimulus response connection, which is a function of the number of reinforcements.
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Edward Chace Tolman
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– Questioned the scientific usefulness of introspection – *rats* – purposive behaviorism
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Clark Leonard Hull
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■ The spirit of mechanism: – Describes human nature in mechanistic terms – Regarded human behavior as automatic and capable of being reduced to the language of physics ■ Objective methodology and quantification – Three methods that Hull considered useful: ■ Simple observation, systematic controlled observation, and the experimental testing of hypotheses – Fourth method: ■ Hypothetico-deductive method: Hull’s method for establishing postulates from which experimentally testable conclusion can be deducted ■ Drives: – Basis of motivation; bodily need that arose from a deviation from optimal biological conditions ■ Learning: focuses on reinforcement – Law of primary reinforcement – Habit strength
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Operant conditioning
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A learning situation that involves behavior emitted by an organism rather than elicited by a detectable stimulus -Skinner
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Law of acquisition
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the strength of an operant behavior is increased when it is followed by the presentation of a reinforcing stimulus – Skinner
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Reinforcement schedules
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Conditions involving various rates and times of reinforcement -Skinner
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Successive approximation
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An explanation for the acquisition of complex behavior. Behaviors such as learning to speak will be reinforced only as they come to approximate or approach the final desired behavior – Skinner
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Behavior modification
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The use of positive reinforcement to control or modify the behavior of individuals or groups. -Skinner
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Vicarious reinforcement
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Bandura’s notion that learning can occur by observing the behavior of other people, and the consequences of their behavior, rather than by always experiencing reinforcement personally
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A concept of Bandura that reflects one’s beliefs about one’s own adequacy is ____.​
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self-efficacy
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The agent who controls the models controls behavior, according to __
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Bandura
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Behavior is the primary characteristic of living things according to:
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Skinner
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One’s own sense of elf-esteem and competence in dealing with life’s problems is ___
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Self-efficacy
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Internal locus of control
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The belief that reinforcement depends on one’s own behavior
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External locus of control
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The belief that reinforcement depends on outside forces
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Of all the neobehaviorists, the one who most obviously espoused mechanism was ____.​
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Hull
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Skinner’s former students demonstrated which of the following with the advent of the IQ Zoo?​
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Operant conditioning can be taken out of the lab and applied to the real world.
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Which of the following did Tolman not consider to be a cause of behavior?​ environmental stimuli physiological drives heredity motivation
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motivation
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Skinner was the complete opposite of Hull with regard to the _____.
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lack of theoretical framework
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The dominant area of study for the neobehaviorists was ____.​
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learning

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