Ch. 11, K201

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data views (Know 2 views – ways of viewing)
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“1. physical view
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2. logical view”
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Physical view
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Focuses on the actual format and location of the data. Typically only very spexialized computer professionals are concerned with the physical view.
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Logical view
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Focuses on the meaning, content and context of the data.
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field
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Group of related characters. “corcoran” would be a data field for the Last name of a student. Consists of the individual letters that make up the last name. A data field represents an attribute of an entity. (the columns)
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record
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A collect of related fields (rows), a collection of attirbute related to an entity.
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database
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Integrated collection of logically related tables.
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primary key / key
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One distinctive field, which uniquely identifies the record. For most employee databases, the key field is the employee identification umber
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batch processing
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Data is collected over several hours, days, or weeks, and then is processed all at once as a “batch” — like credit card bills.
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real-time processing / online processing
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Data is processed at the same time the transaction occurs. Like requesting funds at an ATM
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data redundancy
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When organizations have multiple files on the same subject or person.
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Data integrity
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Database characteristics relating to the consistency and accuracy of data. Like if a bill for a person gets sent to their old address instead of their new one. When there are multiple sources of data, each source might have their own variations
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data definition subsystem
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defines the logical structure of the database by using data dictionary or schema
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query-by-example
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A specific tool in a database anagement that shows a blank record and lets you specify the information needed, like the field and values of the topic you are looking to obtain.
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SQL / Structured Query Language
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A program control language used to create sophisticated database applications for requesting information from a database.
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DBMS (Database Management Systems) structures (Know 5 models)
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“1.Hierarchal
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2. Network
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3. Relational
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4. Multi-Deimensional
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5. Object Oriented”
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Hierarchical database
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One-to-many — Fields or records are structured in nodes, which are points connected like the branches or an upside-down tree. Every entry has a parent node. You start at the top and trace done. If one parent node is deleted, the child files are, too.
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Network database
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Many-to-many —Also has a hierarchical arrangement however each child node may have more than one parent node.
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Relational database
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There are no access paths down a hierarchy. Rather, the data elements are stored in different tables, each of which contains rows and columns. A table and its data are called a relation.
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Multidimensional databases
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Extend the two-dimensional data model to include additional or multiple dimensions, sometimes called a data cube. Complex relationships can be represented.
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Object-oriented database
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More flexible and store data as well as instructions to manipulate the data. The structure is designed to provide input for object-oriented software.
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Types of databases (Know 4 types)
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“1. Individuals
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2. Company
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3. Distributed
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4. Commercial”
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Individual database
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Collection of integrated files primarily used by just one person. Data is under the direct control of the user.
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Company database
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Can be stored on a central database server and managed by a database administrator. Users have access to the database through their personal computer linked to local or wide area networks.
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Distributed database
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Data in a company is stored not in just one location but in several locations and is made accessible through a variety of communications networks.
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Commerical database
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Enormous database that an organization develops to cover particular subjects. It offers this database to the public or selected outside individuals for a fee.
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Csi – example of commercial database
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Offers consumer and business services, including electronic mail
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“Dialog Information Services –
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example of commercial database”
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Offers business information as well as technical and scientific information
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“Dow Jones Interactive Publishing –
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example of commercial database”
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Provides world news and information on business, investments and stocks
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LexisNexis – example of commercial database
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Offers news and information on legal, public records and business issues.
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data warehouse
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Data collected from a variety of internal and external databases and stored in a database called a data warehouse. Data mining is then used to search these databases.

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