CH 11 COTTON, SLAVERY, & OLD SOUTH RG

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the historian who wrote \”The South grew, but it did not develop\” prior to the Civil War meant
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As the South grew and expanded, it became increasingly unlike the North, and increasingly sensitive to what it considered threats to its distinctive way of life. did not advance much in terms of communication, transportation, etc.
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Prior to 1860, the center of economic power in the South
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came from the \”upper South\”
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Tobacco cultivation in the antebellum South
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Much upper south relied on cultivation of tobacco crop was notoriously unstable prices were subject to frequent depressions(1820s-1850s) rapidly exhausted the land difficult for most most growers to remain in business in the same place for v long in 1830s, culitvation moves westward to Piedmont area og was VA, MD, and NC but changed to wheat
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Rice and sugar production in the antebellum South
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rice -SC, GA,& FL relied on rice -demanded substantial irrigation -needed v long growing season(9 months) -cultivation restricted to small area sugar – along the coast -required intensive(& debilitating) labor -long growing time -only wealthy planters can plant it -didn’t spread beyond LA&Eastern TX
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Short-staple cotton
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-if not for this crop, the S might’ve been forced to the region to shift its atttention in the 19th cent to nonagricultural pursuits. -a hardier and coarser strain of cotton that could grow well in a variety of climates and in variety of soils
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During the first half of the 19th cent, the \”Cotton Kingdom\”
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bc cotton production dominatedthe total export of trade bringing in 200 mil.year, lower south became known as cotton kingdom
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Between 1840 and 1860, the American Southern slave population
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410k
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By the time of the Civil War, cotton export
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constituted nearly 2/3 of the total export trade of the US brining in 200mil/year
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By 1860, the textile manufacturing sector of the American South
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value was 4.5mil-a threefold increase over the value of those good 20 yrs before, but only 2% of the value of the raw cotton exported that year, not imp; weak
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the New Orleans magazine publisher, James B. D. Debow, championed
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-most prominent advocate of southern economic independence -published a mag advocating southern commercial and agricultural expansion (De Bow’s review) -warning dangers of \”colonial\” relationship w N -his mag was evidence how S was dependent of N(printed in New Orleans & filled w advertisements of northern manufacturers)
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The Southern failure to develop a large industrial economy
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Slave ownership, white Southerners
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only a small minority of southern whites owned slaves.& of those minority of whites holding slaves, only a small proportion owned them in substantial numbers 1/4 of whites owned slaves
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In the late 1850s, many of the great landholders of the lower South were
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first gen settlers
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The Southern aristocratic ideal
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found reflection in the def of a special role for southern white women. avoided \”coarse\” occupations as trade and commerce those who did not become farmers went to military
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Prior to 1860, affluent Southern white woman
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Prior to 1860, Southern women differed from Northern women
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cult of honor in the region meant in theory that southern white men gave importance to the \”defense\” of women.
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in the late 1850s, the Southern social theorist George Fitzhugh wrote that women
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Women like children have one basic right and that is the right to protection. This right involves the obligation to obey.
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Prior to 1860, Southern white women
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Sexual relationships between white Southern men and female slaves
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the children of those unions became part of the plantation labor force women jealous of slaves punished them
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Most \”plain folk\” of the Old South
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owned a few slaves modest yeoman farmer worked w slaves and closer to them owned the land, substinence farming
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Southern white lower-class resentment of the aristocratic system
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Southern whites who did not own slaves
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hill ppl
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Perhaps the single strongest unifying factor of pre-Civil War Southern whites
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extensive kinship assistance
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The poorest class of white Southerners
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crackers sand hillers poor white trash
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The \”peculiar institution\”
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white southerners referred to salvery as this
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In 1850, outside of the US, slavery in the Western Hemispheres
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nowhere except Brazil, Puerto Rico, Cuba
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Within the American South, the institution of slavery
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had paradoxical results. isolates blacks from whites, drawing sharp and inviolable racial line dividing one grp of southerners to another. (blacks began to develop a society and culture unrelated white culture) created a unique bond between blacks and whites-masters and slaves-in the South
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The slave codes of the American South
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forbade slaves tohold property leave their master’s premises w/o permission to be out after dark to congregate w other slaves except church to carry firearms to strike a white
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The condition’s of a slaves life
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less severe than those slaves in the Caribbean and S. America
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In general, slaves had more privacy and a social realm of their own
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Most enslaved blacks lived
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countryside
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Slave life
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Urban slavery
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worked on mining or lumbering worked on docks and on construction sites performed unskilled tasks slave woman and children worked in region’s few textile mills
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Prior to 1860, free blacks in the South
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250k esp in VA & MD some slaves were able to earn enough money to pay for their freedom ex.) Elizabeth Keckey (seamstress) or set free when the owner died ex.) John Randolph Roanoke freed 400 slaves in 1833 in his will
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to \”manumit\” means to
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to set free
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Common form of resistance to slavery
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refusal to work hard
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Slave revolts in the 19th century South
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1800-Gabe Prosser/Richmond -1000 slaves w him but 2 gave away FAIL 1822-Denmark Vessey/Charelston -9000 slaves someone ratted out FAIL 2X 1831-Nat Turner/VA -summer night led band of slaves and killed 60 men woman and children. Turner and more than 100 balcks killed
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Underground Railroad
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slaves escape to the N or Canada by sympathetic whites who organized the railroad systems
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The chance of a runaway slave making a successful escape from the American South
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not big
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Features of American slave religion
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mostly Christianity had own version with voodoo or other polytheistic religious traditions of Africa
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As compared to 19th century white practices, religious servicesfor American slaves
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Ways in which salves expressed elements of their African heritage
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had own churches
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In the American slave family
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American slave families in the antebellum South?
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The central ideology of slavery, and the vital instrument of white control,
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