ch 10 pre test

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prelinguistic communication.
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Jeremy is a four-year-old boy who makes infantile noises and uses gestures to request objects. He displays prelinguistic communication. articulation problems. acquired apraxia. syntactic dysfunction.
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during the first few months of life.
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Ideally, early intervention in the area of speech and language development should begin in kindergarten. between the ages of 12 and 18 months. during the first few months of life. when the child is of preschool age.
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The loss of the ability to speak is typically more disabling than the loss of the ability to use language.
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Each of the following statements about adolescents and adults with speech and language problems is true except There may be problems settings realistic goals for speech and language learning. People with severe disabilities may need to be taught an alternative to oral language or be given an augmentative communication system. They might refer themselves to a speech-language pathologist because of social embarrassment. The loss of the ability to speak is typically more disabling than the loss of the ability to use language.
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reducing the complexity of a question
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Which one of the following is an example of an alternative question-asking strategy? focusing on student-initiated questions creating several questions with synonymous meaning increasing interaction between student and teacher so both members ask and answer questions reducing the complexity of a question
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decoding
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The ability to transfer written words into speech is decoding. reading phonology. encoding.
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As students progress throughout the grades, written language takes on increasing importance.
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Which of the following statements about written language development is true? Students with language disorders tend to express themselves clearly in writing. Mastering the alphabetic system is not part of written language instruction. As students progress throughout the grades, written language takes on increasing importance. Written language and literacy are not usually problems for students with speech and language disorders.
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functional communication
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To document outcomes based on individual intervention plans, speech-language pathologists use demographic and diagnostic data along with a series of scales that measure social skills. phonemic awareness. academic achievement. functional communication.
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Someone with a language difference that is a disorder has difficulty communicating even in his or her home language community.
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Which of the following statements about communication variations is true? Someone with a language difference that is a disorder has difficulty communicating even in his or her home language community. Children of nondominant cultures should not be expected to learn the rules for effective communication in the dominant culture. Professionals no longer have a problem of bias in normative tests of language assessment. If a student does not use the language expected in school, she or he has a language disorder.
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8 years
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According to typical development, by what age are all American English speech sounds acquired? 18 months 6 years 8 years 3 years
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the natural environment may be arranged to teach more effective language.
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The social interaction, or pragmatic, theory of language development suggests that comprehending language is more important than producing language. language is taught by direct instruction and arrangement of consequences. language development is easily separated from social and cognitive development. the natural environment may be arranged to teach more effective language.
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domain and etiology.
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Language disorders are generally classified according to two dimensions: domain and etiology. primary and secondary causes. specific impairment and expressive delay. phonology and cause.
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language disorders with no identifiable cause.
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Specific language impairment refers to language disorders occurring concomitantly with other disorders. language disorders resulting from learning disabilities. language disorders resulting from intellectual disabilities language disorders with no identifiable cause.
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phonological disorders.
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A failure of the child to understand the sound system of language at an age-appropriate level and in a culturally appropriate way represents phonological disorders. voice disorders. articulation disorders. developmental apraxia.
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lisping
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Which one of the following is an articulation disorder? lisping mutism stuttering apraxia
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1%
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What percentage of children and adults in this country are considered stutterers? 5% 8% 2% 1%
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dysarthria.
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A disorder due to brain damage that affects a person’s respiratory support for making speech sounds is dysarthria. echolalia. aphasia apraxia.
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encoding and decoding.
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Communication requires speech. language. listening and speaking. encoding and decoding.
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language
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The communication of ideas through an arbitrary system of symbols used according to certain rules that determine meaning is phonology. language. communication. speech.
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receptive language.
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Decoding, or understanding messages, is referred to as receptive language. discourse. communication. expressive language.
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sound combinations.
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Phonology refers to linguistic rules governing sound combinations. the social use of language. the meanings and concepts of words. construction of sentences.
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pragmatics
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A language disorder that involves problems with functional and socially appropriate communication is communication. speech. semantics. pragmatics.
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semantic disorder.
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All of the following are examples of speech disorders EXCEPT semantic disorder. fluency disorder. articulation disorder. voice disorder.
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20%
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Approximately what percentage of children identified for special education receives services primarily for speech or language disorders? 20% 1% 10% 5%
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5%
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Approximately what percentage of students in elementary and secondary grades is thought to have speech disorders? 1% 10% 5% 20%

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